HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Region

Tag: Region

Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Available evidence indicates that energy intensity – the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP), expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 2005 prices – in Latin America and the Caribbean remained almost constant in the 1980-2007 period. This shows that the region has not made the progress necessary, in terms of energy efficiency, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gasses. The stagnation in energy-intensity level...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009 Hurricanes on Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009
The extreme climatic events of the Mesoamerican and Caribbean region show that there is a strong correlation (most likely non-linear) between greenhouse gas emissions, temperature increases, increased intensity of hurricanes and the rise in sea levels (IPCC 2007 and Stern 2007). For example, in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean sub-region, there were 36 hurricanes between 2000 and 2009, as against 15 and 9 per year in the 1980s and 1990s. Moreover, d...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change)
Taking into account total CO2 emissions, including those associated with and use changes, the Latin American and Caribbean region rates poorly compared to other regions with regard to emissions of CO2 equivalent per US$ million of GDP produced. Latin America emits 1,152 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million, compared to 481 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million emitted by the OECD countries. This indicates that for each US$ million of G...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
3
Emissions of the Brazilian Amazon Emissions of the Brazilian Amazon
Brazil has been recognized as the fifth highest emitter of greenhouse gasses in the world, and is also the highest emitter within the Latin American and Caribbean region. This high level of emission is first and foremost due land use changes within the country. In 2005, forest and grassland conversion was responsible for emitting more than one billion of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e) in the Brazilian Amazon.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Sustainable development mechanism projects by type Sustainable development mechanism projects by type
Of the 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which have been implemented in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of the projects are related to renewable energy sources and reduction of methane (87% of the total). Only 1% of the CDM projects are related to transportation, 2% to forestation and reforestation, and 2% to fuel substitution. Consequently, there is a clear need for more ex...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Examining CO2 emissions in 2005, excluding those associated with land use changes, it can be seen that the Latin American and Caribbean region has a higher level of emissions per US$ million of GDP (598 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million) than the OECD countries (468 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million), but less than the world average (652 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
3
Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land use, forestry, agriculture and energy consumption. Brazil stands out as the highest emitter of greenhouse gasses caused by land use changes, accounting for more than 800,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. The importance of agricul...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Carbon intensity of energy use: Percentage growth from 1980 Carbon intensity of energy use: Percentage growth from 1980
By comparing the emissions:energy ratio (carbon intensity) between regions, one finds different patterns over time. Thus, between 1980 and 1995, decarbonization in Latin America and the Caribbean was in line with the world average; in the first half of the 1980s, the region progressed even faster than the OECD countries. Later, between 1995 and 2003, the emissions-to-energy consumption ratio increased.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Retreat of tropical glaciers Retreat of tropical glaciers
The retreat of glaciers is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the Latin American region. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador show evidence of reductions in the size of their glaciers. In Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the shrinkage of their glaciers, compared to 1970 and 1975, is even more striking. Since 1970 there has been a substantial reduction in the surface area of the smaller glacier...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Projects under the clean development mechanism Projects under the clean development mechanism
At present, 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been implemented throughout the Latin American and Caribbean region. The countries in the region with the greatest number of CDM projects are Brazil (with 42% of the total), Mexico (with 20%), Chile (with 8%) and Colombia (with 7%).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin America and the Caribbean has seen a recent increase in extreme climatic events, and with it a rise in the number of people affected. The number of storms between 2000 and 2009 increased by 12 compared to the period between 1970 and 1979. In this same time period, floods quadrupled. The number of people affected by extreme temperatures, forest fires, droughts, storms and floods grew from 5 million in the 1970s to more than 40 million in the...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Official Development Assistance Official Development Assistance
In addition to funds specifically for CDM projects, another source of funds for developing countries facing climate change are those designated as Official Development Assistance (ODA). Between 2000 and 2007, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean received 8.5% of these funds. One category of these resources is directed at providing development assistance that targets the objectives of the three Rio Conventions: the United Nations Conventi...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean
In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2), other greenhouse gasses that play an important role in the region are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gasses are produced primarily in the sectors of waste management, mining, industrial processes, and in the production and distribution of natural gas, petroleum and agricultural products. Among the region’s countries, Brazil is the highest emitter of both methane and nitrous oxide. Other countries...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
Data on carbon dioxide emissions makes it possible to identify the main emitting countries within Latin America and the Caribbean. Chief among the emitters is Brazil, accounting for 52%, which together with Mexico, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Argentina accounted for 79% of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the region in 2005. While specific percentages (excluding emissions associated with land use changes) vary, these four countr...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Energy supply in Latin America Energy supply in Latin America
Although 70% of South America’s electricity comes from hydroelectric sources, the situation in Central America and the Caribbean is quite different. In these two regions electric-power generation rely predominantly on fossil fuels. For Latin America and the Caribbean overall, fossil fuels (primarily oil and natural gas) continued to be the most important source (76%) for producing energy in the year 2007. Of the energy produced in the region, onl...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Warming of the earth's surface Warming of the earth's surface
Climate projections for Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that temperature increases will vary according to the particular emissions scenario and country or region concerned. According to the A1B climate change scenario (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) regional increases this century are pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Trends in regional average surface temperatures Trends in regional average surface temperatures
Latin America and the Caribbean follows the global trend of recent increases in temperatures. Observational records show that the region, with a few variations, has been warming through the 20th century. As in the rest of the world, the average temperature increased gradually from early 1900s except a somewhat cooler period in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s the temperature again started to increase and has continued to increase until today, ...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Exploratory oil wells in the Mackenzie region of NWT,Canada Exploratory oil wells in the Mackenzie region of NWT,Canada
The Mackenzie delta and valley in the Northwest Territories, Canada (NWT) has seen a significant increase in the oil prospecting and exploration activity. This map shows the increase, over time, of oil wells between 1990 and 2001.
17 May 2005 - by Karl Cox, Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Arctic, topography and bathymetry Arctic, topography and bathymetry
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga).
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4