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Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature Murre sensitivity to changes in temperature
Annual rates of population change of individual murre colonies during 12 years after the 1977 climatic regime shift in the North Pacific and during 9 years after the 1989 shift, in relation to changes in sea surface temperatures around the colonies from one decadal regime to the next. Population data are from 32 U. aalge and 21 U. lomvia colonies, encompassing the entire circumpolar region. Ten sites supported both species, so 43 different study...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Trends in Arctic murre populations Trends in Arctic murre populations
The two species of murres (known as guillemots in Europe), the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and common murre, Uria aalge, both have circumpolar distributions, breeding in Arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate seas from California and northern Spain to northern Greenland, high Arctic Canada, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya. The thick-billed murre occurs mostly in Arctic waters, while the common murre, although overlapping extensively with the thick-bi...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic Distribution of common eider, breeding and wintering ranges in the Arctic
The common eider, Somateria mollissima, has a circumpolar distribution breeding mainly on small islands in Arctic and boreal marine areas in Alaska (Bering Sea region), Canada, Greenland, Iceland, western Europe, and the Barents Sea region. In Russia, there is a gap in distribution along the mainland coast from the Yugorski Peninsula (Kara Sea) to Chaunskaya Bay in east Siberia (Figure 5.1). Important wintering areas include the Gulf of Alaska/Be...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI) Location of datasets in the Arctic Species Trend Index (ASTI)
Dramatic changes, such as sea ice loss, are projected to occur in Arctic ecosystems over the next century. Understanding how the Arctic’s living resources, including its vertebrate species, are responding to these changes is essential in order to develop effective conservation and adaptation strategies. Arctic species that are adapted to these extreme environments are expected to be displaced, in part, by the encroachment of more southerly specie...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Distribution and spawning areas of four fish species Distribution and spawning areas of four fish species
Distribution and spawning areas of arctic cod, polar cod, herring and capelin in the Barents Sea region. The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway.
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity Distribution of coral, mangrove and seagrass diversity
Similar to corals, the region of greatest mangrove diversity is in Southeast Asia, particularly around the Indonesian Archipelago (Burke et al., 2001). There are three distinct areas of seagrass diversity in the Pacific region: the Indo-Pacific (areas around Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea), the seas around Japan, and southwest Australia (Spalding et al., 2002). This graphic illustrates the distribution and biodiversity (low, medium and...
21 May 2010 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Towns and industrial activities in the Arctic Towns and industrial activities in the Arctic
The Arctic is home to approximately 4 million people, with the share of indigenous and non-indigenous populations varying widely between the Arctic states. Larger settlements are usually located in resource-strategic positions. Rich deposits of natural resources are spurring industrial activity in the region. The Russian Arctic, for example, holds 1.5 of the country’s population, but accounts for 11% of its gross domestic product and 22% of its e...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map) Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long periods of daylight (midnight sun). The winters are long and cold and with periods with no sun (polar night). The Arctic Ocean is one basin that is mostly covered by sea ice, and is connected to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The ...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards
The effects climate change has on different countries are not proportional to their respective contributions to greenhouse gas emissions. Rather, they vary greatly and in some cases the effects may even be positive in specific regions. This presents a general paradox: the countries that are the highest emitters suffer less impact, while those that are lower emitters experience the greatest impact. Metropolitan areas in the region are experiencing...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deteriorated forest hotspots Deteriorated forest hotspots
Despite showing signs of slowing at the global level, the present pace of deforestation continues to be a source of serious concern for Latin America and the Caribbean. While the region’s forests represent one of the most important potential sources for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, it equally accounted for approximately 70% of the world’s decrease in forests between 2005 and 2010 (FAO 2010). The global forest resource assessment (FRA) con...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
In 2005, per capita emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean, not taking emissions associated with land use changes into account, amounted to 5.5 MtCO2-e, with Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela having the highest levels of per capita emissions. On the other end of the spectrum, Guatemala, El Salvador and Haiti had the lowest emission levels in the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change) Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change)
The total amount of CO2 emissions, including those associated with land use changes, highlight the contribution of Latin America and the Caribbean to total global emissions of CO2. In total the region contributes to 13% of global emissions when changes in land use is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives Forest conservation and sustainable management initiatives
In November 2009, in an attempt to preserve the forests and slow deforestation, the Governments of Guyana and Norway signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperation on issues related to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and improving sustainable development, with a particular focus on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the framework of REDD-plus. Within the region, Panama, the Plurinational State ...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change)
A strong heterogeneity in the ratio emission to GDP, including the land use change, is observed among the countries of the region. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia stand out because of the importance of emissions related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and energy consumption). In this way, an increase in per capita income is achieved with less energy consumption and reduced emissions (ECLAC, 2009). Examining an energy intensity index by region for 1980-2005, one sees that, in aggregat...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
The ratio of emissions to GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean remained constant between 1980 and 2005. This is very much in contrast to the world as a whole, the OECD countries and in particular when compared to China. These figures clearly show the need to intensify efforts within the region to transition to less carbon-intensive economies.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (excludes land use change) Share of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions (excludes land use change)
In 2005 the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean accounted for only 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions, excluding emissions associated with land use changes. Between 1990 and 2005, such emissions in the region increased at an average annual rate of 2.3%, owing to a variety of economic, social and demographic factors. In percentage terms, 2005 emissions increased the region’s share of emissions by one percentage compared to 1990. Nevert...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006 Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2006 (excluding those associated with land use changes) amounted to 38,754 million of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e), with Mexico and Brazil being the main emitters in the region (WRI, 2010). The importance of Latin Am...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Retreat of seven Andean glaciers Retreat of seven Andean glaciers
The seven Andean glaciers Antizana 15a and Antizana 15b in Ecuador, and Broggi, Uruashraju, Yanamarey, Cajap and Pastoruri in Peru have shown a substantial retreat since the 1970s and this is a clear indication of how climate change is affecting the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative changes in precipitation Relative changes in precipitation
Projections for changes in precipitation patterns are extremely complex, involving a high degree of uncertainty and large heterogeneity. Summer climate projections under climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show a reduction in precipitation of between 5% and 10% by the end o...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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