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Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that the price for the economy will be too high, but studies indicate that there will only be a small reduction in GDP to reach the Kyoto targets and that it is possible to stabilize the concentration of CO2 at low costs. The GDP los...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Accounting units Accounting units
Countries that are signatories to the Kyoto Protocol have a tool for helping them in the Emissions Trading Scheme. In the Kyoto scheme each allowance is called an Assigned Amount Unit (AAU). Each entity equals one tonne of CO2 equivalent.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96
The graphic shows Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway from 1985 to 1996 with projections to 2010. HFCs are among the most important greenhouse gases and are covered under the Kyoto protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule, but they do trap heat in the atmosphere, making it a greenhouse gas, aiding in global warming. HFC’s are used in air conditioners and refrigerators.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of climate change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and it...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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IPCC structure IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge on the various aspects of global change including science, environmental and socio-economic impacts and response strategies. The IPCC is recognized as the most authoritative scientific and technical voice on these issues, and its...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past, rejected aid (especially unmilled grains) in food imports with concerns for national biosafety. South Africa is so far the only country that is seeing wide-spread use of genetically modified crops.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions and energy scenarios by source Emissions and energy scenarios by source
Despite the Kyoto protocol and increased concern over the consequences of climate change, world wide emissions of CO2 continues to grow. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) world total CO2 emissions will increase by 62% from 2002 – 2030. More than two-thirds of the increase will come from developing countries. They will overtake the OECD as the leading contributor to global emissions early in the 2020s. Despite the strong increase ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, projected 2010 target status Kyoto protocol, projected 2010 target status
According to the projections each country has sent to the UNFCCC Secretariat, 14 countries will reach their targets in 2010. Some of the countries that had reached their targets in 2002 will increase their emissions between 2002-2010, while others like Germany will decrease and reach their target in 2010. The number of countries reaching their targets is pretty stable. Projection data for some of the countries that reached their targets in 2002 a...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
Target reached in 2002, but the emissions are increasing again. By the end of 2005, countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions shall report on their progress towards reaching the emission targets set in the Protocol. Even if the total emissions from Annex 1 countries decreased by 6,4 % between 1990 and 2002, only a few of these countries can report on a real progress in reaching their emission targets. The decrease is mai...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, timeline and history Kyoto protocol, timeline and history
The Kyoto Protocol In 1997 world leaders adopted the Kyoto Protocol requiring rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, calculated as an average over the period 2008-2012. Under the Kyoto Protocol the rich countries have different targets, that in sum adds up to a reduction of 5.2%. For example, the European Union aims for an 8% cut in total, Germany committed to a 21% cut and the United Kingdom to 12.5...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
After more than 10 years of negotiations, the Kyoto Protocol finally becomes legally binding for the countries that have ratified it. The overall goal in the Protocol is a 5,2 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions below the 1990 level by Annex 1 countries by 2010. As of 2 February 2005, 141 states and regional economic integration organizations had ratified, acceded to, approved, or accepted the Protocol. Only USA, Australia, Monaco and Croatia...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Common but differentiated responsibilities Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as developing and do not have the same goals as industrialized nations.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phased out more than 95% of the production and consumption of the chemicals controlled by the protocol.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The ozone protection landscape The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds since they have greater needs.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Antarctic hole The Antarctic hole
Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemical stability of ozone-depleting substances – it takes about 40 years for them to break down.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Antarctic hole The Antarctic hole
Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemical stability of ozone-depleting substances – it takes about 40 years for them to break down.
31 Jul 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total CO2 emissions  from fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring Total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992, divides countries into Annex I (industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition) and Non-Annex I parties (mostly developing countries). Some of them committed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by adopting the Kyoto Protocol (1997).
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Deadlines for Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances Deadlines for Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances
Defined in the Montreal Protocol phase-outs
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Recipients and contributors countries of the Multilateral Fund Recipients and contributors countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ODS production and consumption. Hence,ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds since they have greater needs. However all developing countries who are Parties to the Montreal Protocol have received assistance. Naturally, larger countries with higher population will also have a greater need for ODS, and ther...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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