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Tag: Protocol

Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Accounting units
Countries that are signatories to the Kyoto Protocol have a tool for helping them in the Emissions Trading Scheme. In the Kyoto scheme each allowance is called an Assigned Amount Unit (AAU). Each entity equals one tonne ...
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96
The graphic shows Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway from 1985 to 1996 with projections to 2010. HFCs are among the most important greenhouse gases and are covered under the Kyoto protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons...
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC and UNFCCC - Institutional framework
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
IPCC structure
In 1988, UNEP and WMO jointly established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as concern over changes in the climate became a political issue. The purpose of the IPCC was to assess the state of knowledge...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Emissions and energy scenarios by source
Despite the Kyoto protocol and increased concern over the consequences of climate change, world wide emissions of CO2 continues to grow. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) world total CO2 emissions will i...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, projected 2010 target status
According to the projections each country has sent to the UNFCCC Secretariat, 14 countries will reach their targets in 2010. Some of the countries that had reached their targets in 2002 will increase their emissions betw...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
Target reached in 2002, but the emissions are increasing again. By the end of 2005, countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions shall report on their progress towards reaching the emission targets...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, timeline and history
The Kyoto Protocol In 1997 world leaders adopted the Kyoto Protocol requiring rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, calculated as an average over the period 2008-2012. Unde...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Kyoto protocol, 2002 target status
After more than 10 years of negotiations, the Kyoto Protocol finally becomes legally binding for the countries that have ratified it. The overall goal in the Protocol is a 5,2 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions belo...
17 May 2005 - by Robert Barnes, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Common but differentiated responsibilities
All countries can claim “climate credits” by their phase out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) under the Montreal Protocol, and some are beginning to document this contribution. Article 5 countries are those listed as ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Effects of the Montreal Protocol amendment and their phase-out schedules
There are currently a hundred and ninety-one Parties to this treaty, demonstrating a greater degree of global participation than almost any other agreement managed by the UN. By 2005 these countries had collectively phas...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone protection landscape
Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, Governments finally recognised the need for stronger measures to reduce consumption and production of various CFCs and halons. The Montreal Protocol came into force on 1 January 1989.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
All recipient and contributor countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ozone depleting substances (ODS) production and consumption. Hence, ODS producer countries and hig...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic hole
Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemi...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic hole
Despite progress achieved under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This was due to particularly cold temperatures in the stratosphere, but also to the chemi...
31 Jul 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production and gas flaring
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992, divides countries into Annex I (industrialized countries and countries with economies in transition) and Non-Annex I parties (mostly d...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Deadlines for Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances
Defined in the Montreal Protocol phase-outs
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Recipients and contributors countries of the Multilateral Fund
Countries receive funds according to their compliance needs. That is, they receive funds to phase-out specific amounts of ODS production and consumption. Hence,ODS producer countries and high consumers receive more funds...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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