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Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems
Millennium Assessment systems with the lowest net primary productivity and lowest GDP tended to have the highest population growth rates between 1990 and 2000. Urban, inland water, and marine systems are not included due to the somewhat arbitrary nature of determining net primary productivity of the system (urban) or population growth and GDP (freshwater and marine) for them.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Milk productivity Milk productivity
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows the production of milk in Baltic countries in 1998.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in maize crops, Venezuela Projected changes in maize crops, Venezuela
Agriculture is a key sector in the region’s economy and it employs an important proportion of the economically active population. Climate change could adversely affect Latin American agricultural regions, especially tropical Latin America, by reducing the amount of land available for cultivation due to increased risk of desertification, and by decreasing yields, especially on rain fed lands due to changes in climatic patterns. The dry land in the...
06 Nov 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR samples from the North Sea at levels that were 6 standard deviations above previous measurements since 1958. Further evidence of this warning signal is seen in the appearance of a Pacific planktonic plant (a diatom Neodenticula s...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World fisheries hotspots, 2004 World fisheries hotspots, 2004
The World’s most productive fishing grounds are confined to major hotspots, less than 10% of the World oceans. The maps shows annual catch (tonnes per km2) for the World’s oceans. Notice the strong geographic concurrence of continental shelves, upwelling and primary productivity and the amount of fish caught by fisheries.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habitats are now occurring at an alarming rate. Exotic and invasive species have been identified by scientists and policymakers as a major threat to marine ecosystems, with dramatic effects on biodiversity, biological productivity, hab...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in Central Asia [Russian] Energy consumption in Central Asia [Russian]
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central Asia with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan being the worst at energy consumption. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in Central Asia Energy consumption in Central Asia
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central Asia with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan being the worst at energy consumption.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Variations in snow depth and ice cover, alpine lake at Hardangervidda plateau, Norway Variations in snow depth and ice cover, alpine lake at Hardangervidda plateau, Norway
Climate warming means that lowland lakes typically are experiencing longer ice-free periods, promoting greater biological productivity. However, despite this warming trend, biological productivity may be reduced, at least temporarily, in alpine areas with increased winter precipitation. During years with high winter precipitation in alpine areas of western Norway, in spite of higher temperatures, fish growth and recruitment were lower than in low...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries Relative changes in food supply (crops and livestock): industrial and developing countries
Over the past 40 years, globally, intensification of cultivated systems has been the primary source (almost 80%) of increased output. But some countries, predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa, have had persistently low levels of productivity, and continue to rely on expansion of cultivated area.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total agricultural output Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numerous countries. World cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 with average yields per hectare increasing around 150% in many high and low income countries, with the exception of most nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
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Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries Changes in available water in Africa: end of 20th and 21st centuries
Salinization affects about 10% of the world’s irrigated land, while the loss of biodiversity and its associated agroecological functions (estimated to provide economic benefits of US$ 1,542 billion per year) adversely affect productivity especially in environmentally sensitive lands in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Natural resources - agricultural potential Natural resources - agricultural potential
Soils underpin the production of a wide range of agricultural and industrial goods and services. Soil productivity is essential to agricultural activities - for food security, cash income and supporting the livelihoods of the poor. Agriculture is the major engine of economic growth in a majority of developing countries – for instance low income developing countries have a high share of agriculture in gross domestic product. This map presents a ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - solar power (potential) Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because convenient, affordable energy can contribute to a household’s productivity and income generating potential, its availability can help families and communities break out of the cycle of poverty. At the same time it also provides gro...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources - marine resources Natural resources - marine resources
Primary ocean productivity, as measured in grammes of carbon per square meter, from remote sensing imagery outlines the areas with rich marine life. These areas are characterised by an abundance of marine life and they provide natural resources in terms of fisheries and harvesting of these resources. The map is a part of a set, presenting different natural resources, with a focus on developing countries, and the use of natural resources for econo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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An increasing number of countries are leasing land abroad to sustain and secure their food production An increasing number of countries are leasing land abroad to sustain and secure their food production
The world regions are sharply divided in terms of their capacity to use science in promoting agricultural productivity in order to achieve food security and reduce poverty and hunger. For every US$100 of agricultural output, developed countries spend US$2.16 on public agricultural research and development (R&D), whereas developing countries spend only US$0.55 (IFPRI, 2008). Total agricultural R&D spending in developing countries increased ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in productivity 1981-2003 (greening and land degradation) Trends in productivity 1981-2003 (greening and land degradation)
Unsustainable practices in irrigation and production may lead to increased salinization of soil, nutrient depletion and erosion. An estimated 950 million ha of salt-affected lands occur in arid and semi-arid regions, nearly 33% of the potentially arable land area of the world. Globally, some 20% of irrigated land (450,000 km2) is salt-affected, with 2,500–5,000 km2 of lost production every year as a result of salinity (UNEP, 2008).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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