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Trends in Food prices Trends in Food prices
FAO Food Price Index
09 Mar 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius/GRID-Arendal
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Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation Kyoto protocol, cost of implementation
The Kyoto Protocol is only a first step towards combating climate change. Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to avoid the most threatening consequences of global warming. Concerns are raised that the price for the economy will be too high, but studies indicate that there will only be a small reduction in GDP to reach the Kyoto targets and that it is possible to stabilize the concentration of CO2 at low costs. The GDP los...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bor river/Timok river Watershed Bor river/Timok river Watershed
The graphic shows the watershed area of the Bor and Timok rivers, and the areas potentially affected by pollution.The southeast Serbian municipality of Bor is paying a high price for the century-old industrial exploitation of its copper resources. The citizens and the municipality of Bor have recently embarked on a participatory process in order to identify and tackle their most threatening environmental problems.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Shipbreaking in Asia Shipbreaking in Asia
Prior to 1970, shipbeaking was concentrated in Europe. It was a highly mechanised activity carried out at docks by skilled workers. However the increasing cost of upholding environmental health and safety guidelines made it unprofitable. So the industry moved from the steel capped boots and hard hats of Europe to the bare footed workers of Asia. It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Asians are employed as ship breakers. (International Labou...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in shipping Trends in shipping
The graphic displays the development of seaborne trade in crude oil and products to other major bulks and dry goods. It covers the period from 1970 to 2000. The growth in maritime transportation is strongly correlated with the growth in international trade. Major fluctuations in export values in the 1970s and 1980s were mainly linked with oil price variations. More recently, the development of containerized maritime transportation has been linked...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, for the Caspian Sea region countries Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, for the Caspian Sea region countries
Purchasing power parity (PPP) measures how much a currency can buy in terms of an international benchmark (usually dollars), since the cost of goods and services differs between countries. PPP is below the value of a US dollar in countries where the general price index is lower than in the US (as is the case for all five Caspian states -Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan, to varying extents), and above it where the prices are h...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bor river/Timok river Watershed Bor river/Timok river Watershed
The graphic shows the watershed area of the Bor and Timok rivers, and the areas potentially affected by pollution.The southeast Serbian municipality of Bor is paying a high price for the century-old industrial exploitation of its copper resources. The citizens and the municipality of Bor have recently embarked on a participatory process in order to identify and tackle their most threatening environmental problems.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty and unemployment in New York City Poverty and unemployment in New York City
The United States Census Bureau sets the poverty thresholds according to money income before taxes, excluding capital gains and noncash benefits, family size and number of children under 18 years old. These thresholds were developed by the Social Security Administration (SSA) in 1964, then revised by interagency committees (1969, 1981). They are adjusted each year using the annual average Consumer Price Index (CPI). For example, a single person u...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary Price change of selected retail foodstuffs and the percentage of retail value paid to primary
The elimination or the substantial reduction of subsidies and protectionism in industrialized countries, especially for commodities in which developing countries compete such as sugar, groundnuts and cotton is important for small-scale farm sectors around the world. Similarly, plurilateral commitments from major exporting countries to ensure that there is no trade at prices below the full cost of production have been put forward as an option to d...
03 Jan 2008 - by Ketill Berger
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Market concentration Market concentration
Agricultural trade is increasingly organized in global chains, dominated by a few large transnational buyers (trading companies, agrifood processors and companies involved in production of commodities). In these globalized chains primary producers often capture only a fraction of the international price of a trade commodity, so the poverty reduction and rural development effects of integration in global supply chains have been far less than optim...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop
Ensuring policy space for all these countries to maintain prices for crops that are important to food security and rural livelihoods is essential. Agricultural policies in industrialized countries, including export subsidies, have reduced commodity prices and thus food import costs; however this has undermined the development of the agricultural sector in developing countries, and thus agriculture’s significant potential growth multiplier for the...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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FAO Commodity Price Indices FAO Commodity Price Indices
Although production has generally increased, the rising prices coincided with extreme weather events in several major cereal producing countries, which resulted in a depletion of cereal stocks. The 2008 world cereal stocks are forecast to fall to their lowest levels in 30 years time, to 18.7% of utilization or only 66 days of food (FAO, 2008).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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FAO Food price index (FFPI) FAO Food price index (FFPI)
The current world food crisis is the result of the combined effects of competition for cropland from the growth in biofuels, low cereal stocks, high oil prices, speculation in food markets and extreme weather events. The crisis has resulted in a several-fold increase in several central commodity prices, driven 110 million people into poverty and added 44 million more to the already undernourished. Information on the role and constraints of t...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Market access (estimated travel time) in agricultural areas Market access (estimated travel time) in agricultural areas
Accessibility to food is also determined by the long-term trend in food prices (which is a different issue from price volatility). The rising trend in global food prices is likely to persist in the next decade. In the long run, however, prices will decline (OECD-FAO, 2008).
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean Energy intensity in Latin America and the Caribbean
Available evidence indicates that energy intensity – the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP), expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP) at 2005 prices – in Latin America and the Caribbean remained almost constant in the 1980-2007 period. This shows that the region has not made the progress necessary, in terms of energy efficiency, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gasses. The stagnation in energy-intensity level...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Public services provide cheaper water Public services provide cheaper water
By bringing water to people water resellers extend the coverage of piped water and provide a service with important benefits for households - but at a price. That price rises with distance from the utility, as defined by the number of intermediaries between the network and the end consumer. Having a regular supply of clean water piped into the household is the optimal type of provision for human development. Experience suggests that households w...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Abatement costs for transition from undisturbed forest to other land uses Abatement costs for transition from undisturbed forest to other land uses
Opportunity costs for the transition from forest to other land uses between 1994-2009 in Tripa and 1990-2009 in Batang Toru are shown. For the transition to the most profitable land-use a price of slightly more than USD 10 per tCO2 would have been sufficient to offset opportunity costs in Batang Toru. For Tripa this value is lower because of the below ground carbon stocks in the peatlands.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land use values Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for carbon were calculated according to Butler et al. 2009 model using a discount rate of 6.5% and voluntary market prices (mean USD 13.33t/CO2, range USD 9.43-17, forest carbon report). Under the fixed scenario the carbon price remai...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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