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Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96 Harmful algal blooms in the West Central Atlantic, 1970-96
The graphic shows the trend of the number of harmful algal blooms in the Western Atlantic from 1970 to 1996. The excess growth of algae is often caused by pollution, and can have negative or fatal effects on some species of fish.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sites with dead zones (oxygen depletion on the sea bottom) Sites with dead zones (oxygen depletion on the sea bottom)
Dead zones (hypoxic i.e. oxygen deficient water) in the coastal zones are increasing, typically surrounding major industrial and agricultural centers. This is commonly occuring due to nutrient pollution, in the form of nitrogen and phosphorous leading to algal blooms and eutrophication
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Primary threats to the marine environment Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs etc.), 4) Invasive species infestations, and 5) Over-harvest from fisheries may individually or combined result in severe impacts on the biological production of the worlds oceans and the services they provide to billions of people ...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown with algae, or broken down by wave activity or storms, leaving only “coral rubble” on the ocean bed.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the most intensive fisheries and bottom trawling, and major shipping routes. The areas in the figure have been highlighted based on an overview of literature, and the delineation of the areas are approximate.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) case studies
The Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) is an example of a comprehensive strategic assessment designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters. This graphic shows GIWA case studies for the Black Sea, the Amazon, the Great Barrier Reef and the Agulhas Current. Each case study includes an introduction and maps of the region and a discussion of the issues of concern for that region, such as freshw...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global International Waters Assessment Tools Global International Waters Assessment Tools
Global International Waters Assessment's (GIWA) assessment tools for monitoring the world's water resources, incorporating five major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework (driving forces-pressure-state-impact-response), are now beginning to yield results of practical use for management decisions. This graphic explains the GIWA Assessment Methodology and GIWA's five main environmental concerns, which are: freshwater shorta...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand
In areas where surface water is not readily available (located far away from areas where it is needed), groundwater is the primary water source. This graphic shows the chloride concentration and the potassium concentration, in milligrams per litre, in the city of Hat Yai's canals. It also shows the degree to which the polluted canal water has mixed with the groundwater. Finally, the graphic explains how the city's groundwater has been polluted by...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Biochemical oxygen demand is an indicator of the organic pollution of freshwater. Alkalinity (concentration of calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is another indicator of freshwater quality. These graphics compare the concentrations of these two factors, in milligrams per litre, in the major regions of the world for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The accompanying text explains the implications of the changes in BOD and alkalinity during these...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tajikistan, topographic map Tajikistan, topographic map
Tajikistan is located in Central Asia, west of China, comprising of 143,100 sq km. It has a population of 7,163,506 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of CO2 in Norway, 85-95 Emissions of CO2 in Norway, 85-95
The graph shows emissions of CO2 in Norway from 1985 to 1995 and estimates future emissions from 1995 to 2010. CO2 can be created by use of fossil fuel, by land-use convertion, combustion or cement production.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway, C2F4 and C2F6 85-96 Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway, C2F4 and C2F6 85-96
The graphic shows emissions of C2F4 and C2F6 in CO2 equivalents in Norway from 1985 to 1996. C2F4 and C2F6 are primarily results of the production process of alumunium. Their atmospheric lifetime is estimated to be around 50 000 years.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of methane 1985-2010 Norwegian emissions of methane 1985-2010
The graph shows emissions of methane in Norway from 1985 to 2010. It makes an estimate to 2010 according to the 1998-2001 long term program. Fossil fules, live stock and waste dumps are among the anthropogenic sources that create methane
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sale of pesticide in Norway Sale of pesticide in Norway
Due to the high latitude and a relatively short growing season in Norway, the number of pests is limited compared with middle and southern Europe. However, some weed species are more dominant due to a general wet and cold climate. In 1985, 1,529 tonnes of pesticide active ingredients were sold. This was reduced to an average of 803 tonnes between 1991 and 1996.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of SF6 Norwegian emissions of SF6
SF6 is a gas that is used in circuit breakers and other switchgear as an electrical insulator. SF6 is a highly potent greenhouse gas, over 23,900 times more effective at trapping infrared radiation than carbon dioxide.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of CO2 Norwegian emissions of CO2
Emissions of carbon dioxide in Norway, 1985-1997, with projections up to 2010 (with a current measures scenario, as of 1997). Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the main agent of greenhouse gases that is released primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, in cars, industry and homes.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of CF4 and C2F6 Norwegian emissions of CF4 and C2F6
The graph shows emissions of CF4 and C2F6 in Norway from 1985 t0 1996. CF4 and C2F6 are perfluorocarbons and primarily produced during the production of aluminium but also through semiconductor manufacturing. Emissions can be reduced by improving process efficiency
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sale of pesticides in Norway 1985-1995 Sale of pesticides in Norway 1985-1995
The graph shows the sale of pesticides in Norway from 1985 to 1995. Pesticides are chemicals or altered natural chemicals used in agriculture to control pests, to protect crops. Among these are various forms of insects, weeds, rodents and fungi.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway, 85-96
The graphic shows Emissions of HFC in CO2 equivalents in Norway from 1985 to 1996 with projections to 2010. HFCs are among the most important greenhouse gases and are covered under the Kyoto protocol. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule, but they do trap heat in the atmosphere, making it a greenhouse gas, aiding in global warming. HFC’s are used in air conditioners and refrigerators.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of methane (1985-1996) Norwegian emissions of methane (1985-1996)
The graph shows Norwegian emissions of methane from 1985 to 1996. Methane is emitted to the atmosphere by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Among these are fossil fuels, waste dumps, and livestock.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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