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Sources of marine litter Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through deliberate disposal or unintentional discharge, either at sea or from land by way of rivers, drainage systems and wind.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea
The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) has undertaken modelling to perform comprehensive spatial analysis and mapping of human pressures throughout the Mediterranean Basin. This work builds on a previous global analysis of cumulative human impacts (Halpern et al. 2008), including additional information to better reflect the specific pressures and ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea and coasts. A total of 22 spatial da...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean
A large proportion of marine litter is plastics (UNEP 2009). The impact of large plastic material on the environment has been widely studied. Effects include entanglement of marine animals in plastic and ingestion of plastic by marine organisms.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean concentrations of trace metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Mean concentrations of trace metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
The term trace metal is used here for potentially toxic metals that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissues, and biomagnify in food chains. Metals and organometallic compounds are commonly included in emission inventories and monitoring networks, specially mercury, cadmium and lead. Urban and industrial wastewaters, atmospheric deposition and run-off from metal contaminated sites constitute the major sources of toxic...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Hazards in and around the Caspian Hazards in and around the Caspian
The map highlights the various environmental hazards around the Caspian Sea.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Discharge of selected pollutants Discharge of selected pollutants
Data referring to the Biological Oxygen Demand load (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels were available for all five of the Caspian countries through the Baseline Inventory Report.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Urbanisation on the Caspian shores Urbanisation on the Caspian shores
The population dynamics of the Caspian littoral states (US Census Bureau 2010) in 1992 – 2007 vary: while the overall population of Kazakhstan and Russia has declined by 7.6 and 4.8 per cent respectively, the population of Azerbaijan grew by 8.2 per cent, of Iran by 16.0 per cent and of Turkmenistan by 19.8 per cent. However, the total Caspian coastal population (including only administrative units contiguous to the Caspian Sea) gradually inc...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
The figure shows the sources of pollution in the Cheleken Peninsula.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying to address these issues. The key sectors that are involved include the agriculture, waste-water management, and fertilizer production sectors. As shown in the figure for the year 2000, models indicate that globally, roughly equal a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM)
Mercury residues from mining and industrial processing, as well as mercury in waste, have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites all over the world. Polluted soil can contain as much as 400 grammes of mercury per hectare, as measured at a Venezuelan gold mining site (Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2006). Most mercury contamination sites are concentrated in the industrial areas of North America, Europe and Asia; and in sub-Saharan Africa and Sou...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Long-range mercury transport Long-range mercury transport
Coal burning for electric power generation and for industrial purposes continues to increase, especially in Asia (UNEP, 2013). Assessing the global spread and fate of mercury is a challenging task, as there are few studies available about net deposition of different forms of mercury in air, water and land. For example, when mercury moves from air to water and land it is generally in an oxidized gaseous or particle form, whereas when it is remitte...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Regional mercury emissions in 2010 Regional mercury emissions in 2010
Global emissions of mercury to the air in 2010 from human activities were estimated at 1,960 tonnes. Although it is difficult to compare emissions estimates for individual years, total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere appear to have been relatively stable from 1990 to 2010 (UNEP, 2013). There has been a large shift in regional patterns, however. Economic growth has driven an increase in anthropogenic emissions in Southern and ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources Cheleken Peninsula pollution sources
Khazar (formerly Cheleken) is a town of 10 000 people (once 16 000), located on the Cheleken peninsula on the Caspian shore. Iron bromide (FeBr2) production started at the Cheleken plant in 1940, followed by iodine production in 1976. The production capacity of the plant is about 250 tonnes of iodine a year. The natural water (brine) found here contains radioactive elements. During iodine processing, with the coal-absorption method, radio...
08 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements Net national savings in 2001 adjusted for investments in human capital, natural resource depletion, and damage caused by pollution compared with standard net national savings measurements
Positive values for national savings (expressed as a percent of gross national income) reflect a gain in wealth for a nation. Standard measures do not incorporate investments in human capital (in standard national accounting, these expenditures are treated as consumption), depletion of a variety of natural resources, or pollution damages.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone. Drilling technology in the 1960s to 1980s did not account for the corrosive nature of seawater and its effects on metal casing and lay head. Over time, wells have become considerable sources of marine pollution. Some 600 000...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments Pesticides and heavy metals in sediments
Often, once the oil extraction activity stops, waste remains and constitutes a hazard. In Kazakhstan there are 19 oilfields with 1485 oil wells in the coastal zone of the Caspian Sea, including 148 in the flooded zone. Drilling technology in the 1960s to 1980s did not account for the corrosive nature of seawater and its effects on metal casing and lay head. Over time, wells have become considerable sources of marine pollution. Some 600 000...
07 Mar 2012 - by Original cartography by Philippe Rekacewicz (le Monde Diplomatique) assisted by Laura Margueritte and Cecile Marin, later updated by Riccardo Pravettoni (GRID-Arendal), Novikov, Viktor (Zoi Environment Network)
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Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development
Figure 27: Loss of biodiversity with continued agricultural expansion, pollution, climate change and infrastructure development. (Source: GLOBIO; Alkemade et al., 2009).
01 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Les réservoirs de SAO dans le monde, par secteur Les réservoirs de SAO dans le monde, par secteur
Les « réservoirs » correspondent à la quantité totale de substances contenues dans les équipements industriels, les stocks de produits chimiques, les mousses et d’autres produits, qui n’ont pas encore été émis dans l’atmosphère ou détruits à l’aide d’installation de dépollution.
26 May 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15
The graph shows Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 from 1970 to 1992. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers
The graphic shows the development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers. Water resources in Europe have been profoundly influenced over the past century by human activities, including the construction of dams and canals, large irrigation and drainage systems, changes of land cover in most watersheds, high inputs of chemicals from industry and agriculture into surface and groundwater, and depletion of aquifers. Some of the most...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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