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Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas Applicability of space technology to Arctic policy areas
This figure maps the contribution that each type of space system (communications, weather and climate, navigation, earth observation, surveillance, and science) can make to each policy area (safety, environment, sustainable economic development, sovereignty, and indigenous and social development).
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging By-passing flow of investment to illegal logging
The Norwegian sovereign wealth fund is an example of a governance mechanism employed in an attempt to limit investment in companies involved in illegal logging.
27 Sep 2012 - by GRID-Arendal
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Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, better communication and advances in market and trade systems. This has also increased the demand and use of irrigation, phosphorus and nitrogen.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environmental policy responses Environmental policy responses
This graphic shows the general responses to the need for policy from region to region around the world. The trend looks optimistic that many different types and level of policies are being implemented in most areas of the world. Please note that this graphic is outdated.
01 Jan 1998 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human impact, Greater Asian Mountains region 2000 and scenarios for 2030 Human impact, Greater Asian Mountains region 2000 and scenarios for 2030
Changes in the Greater Asian Mountains area with reduced biodiversity and ecosystem function as a result of human development in infrastructure and associated resource exploitation between 2000 and 2030, given different scenarios. Security first and Markest first indicate situations where market deiven forces determine rate and extent of development while policy first represents a moderate growth rate.
26 Jan 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human impact, year 2032 (policy first scenario) Human impact, year 2032 (policy first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 policy first scenario. This scenario suggests that decisive initiatives are taken by governments in an attempt to reach specific social and environmental goals.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Signatories to Aarhus convention (2001) Signatories to Aarhus convention (2001)
The Aarhus Convention is a new kind of environmental agreement. It links environmental rights and human rights. It acknowledges that we owe an obligation to future generations. It establishes that sustainable development can be achieved only through the involvement of all stakeholders. It links government accountability and environmental protection. It focuses on interactions between the public and public authorities in a democratic context and i...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate Change Performance Index 2008 Climate Change Performance Index 2008
Developed by Germanwatch and using three weighted indexes: Emission trends, emission level and climate policy.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past, rejected aid (especially unmilled grains) in food imports with concerns for national biosafety. South Africa is so far the only country that is seeing wide-spread use of genetically modified crops.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human impact: Barents region 2032 (policy first scenario) Human impact: Barents region 2032 (policy first scenario)
The greater region around the Barents Sea, with parts of Norway, Finland, Sweden and Russia, represents one of the most populated areas of the Arctic. The development of roads and other infrastructure fragments the fragile tundra and taiga and reduces the value of the habitats for larger mammals, such as reindeer, wolverines and bears. This illustrate the projected growth, according to the GEO-3 'policy first' scenario.
01 Nov 2002 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050 Biodiversity loss: state and scenarios 2006 and 2050
These projections of biodiversity loss from 2000 to 2050 were produced by the GLOBIO consortium for UNEP's Global Environment Outlook 4. Across the GEO scenarios and regions, global biodiversity continues to be threatened, with strong implications for ecosystem services and human well-being. All regions continue to experience declines in terrestrial biodiversity in each of the scenarios. The greatest losses are seen in Markets First, followed by ...
26 Jan 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in real commodity prices Trends in real commodity prices
Agriculture is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development; about 70% of the world’s poor are rural and most are involved in farming. National policy needs to arrive at a balance between a higher prices which can benefit producers and lead to a more vibrant rural economy, and lower prices, which, although volatile on the international market, can improve food access for poor consumers.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop Cost of coffee from farm gate to coffee shop
Ensuring policy space for all these countries to maintain prices for crops that are important to food security and rural livelihoods is essential. Agricultural policies in industrialized countries, including export subsidies, have reduced commodity prices and thus food import costs; however this has undermined the development of the agricultural sector in developing countries, and thus agriculture’s significant potential growth multiplier for the...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest, crops and the people Forest, crops and the people
There are competing demands for land use. Any policy that aims to promote ecosystem carbon management must resolve conflicts between different land uses and take care not to disadvantage the poor.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Quantitative targets for Japan's 3R Policy for 2000-2010 Quantitative targets for Japan's 3R Policy for 2000-2010
No data
28 Mar 2006 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate Change Performance Index 2008 Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A country’s current emissions level (CO2 emitted per primary energy unit, primary energy unit per GDP, primary energy unit per capita) is given a 30 % weight in the overall evaluation; *Climate policy (national and international) weighs ...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This will cause some low-lying coastal areas to become completely submerged, while others will increasingly face short-lived high-water levels. These anticipated changes could have a major impact on the lives of coastal populations. The small island developing states (SIDS) will be especially vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise, and to changes in ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
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Water - cooperation or conflict? Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the depth of cooperation. Measuring the level of conflict between governments over water is inherently difficult as water is seldom a stand-alone foreign policy issue. Oregon State University has attempted to compile data covering every r...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Increasing price with volume Increasing price with volume
Rising block tariffs aim to achieve several public policy goals. A low or zero tariff applied to the first block can enhance affordability. For example, Durban, South Africa, provides 25 litres of water a day free of charge - a lifeline to many - with a steep increase above this level. Higher tiers aim at enabling utilities to increase efficiency, by creating disincentives for overuse, and at mobilizing revenues to cover costs. Block tariffs thus...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonal oxygen-depleted waters. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on treating and reducing municipal and industrial waste, and on reducing nitrogen levels in agricultural runoff. However, less...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
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