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Tag: Ocean

Fishing yield
Three-quarters of the world’s fish stocks are currently exploited to the maximum extent, if not in excess (FAO, 2000). This exploitation has had the following impacts: - A growing variety of fishery products are being e...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
The water cycle
Environment water transport system. The water cycle consists of precipitation, vapour transport, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, infiltration, groundwater flow and runoff. Figure 1 explains the global water cycle, ill...
01 Feb 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz , UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, provid...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Planet index 2007 for marine species population
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average changeover time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six regi...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Coral reefs at risks
There are two distinct regions in which coral reefs are primarily distributed: the Wider Caribbean (Atlantic Ocean) and the Indo-Pacific (from East Africa and the Red Sea to the Central Pacific Ocean). - The diversity o...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial ac...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
Thermohaline Circulation
Thermohaline circulation is a 3-dimensional flow involving surface and deep ocean waters, which is driven by differences in water temperature and salinity. (Image source: NOAA/NCDC).
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Southern Ocean Carbon Sink Change
The Southern Oceans are recognised as an important carbon sink currently taking up approximately 15% of anthropogenic CO2. Models predict that as the atmospheric concentration of CO2 increases, so should the ocean’s abso...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Blue Carbon Sink Burial Rates a)
The capacity of ocean's blue carbon sinks (tons of carbon per hectare per year).
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oceans Carbon Fluxes
An important role played by the ocean is the storage and exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, and its diffusion toward deeper layers. At high latitudes, dense waters sink, transferring carbon to the deep ocean. Warming o...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Blue Carbon Sinks
The carbon captured by living organisms in oceans is stored in the form of sediments from mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses. Benefiting from the excellent conditions available to support plant growth, vegetated coas...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Green Carbon
45% of green carbon stored in natural terrestrial ecosystems and the remaining 55% is captured by living organisms in oceans and ocean's blue carbon sinks.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fish Catch
The worlds most productive fishing grounds are confined to major hotspots in around 7.5% of the ocean surface, where over half of the fish are caught.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Blue Carbon Sink Burial Rates b)
The capacity of ocean's blue carbon sinks (total annual blue carbon sink burial rates).
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Atmospheric Circulation Patterns
Carbon cycling in the world’s oceans. The flow of carbon dioxide across the air-sea interface is a function of CO2 solubility in sea water (Solubility Pump). The amount of CO2 dissolved in sea water is mainly influenced ...
06 Oct 2009 - by Giulio Frigieri
Sea Ice Anomaly in Northern Hemisphere
Arctic sea-ice reductions have significant impacts on climate, wildlife and communities. The opening of open water across the Arctic ocean will have unknown consequences in terms of changes in water circulation and redis...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea Level Anomalies
Melting and warming will have consequences on ocean circulation. Additionally melting of inland glaciers and continental ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica, and the thermal expansion of ocean waters are causing sea l...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual rainfall
Sumatran orangutans live in lowland tropical rainforests, with precipitation normally between 1,680 mm and 4,070 mm annually. Western regions receive much more rain than those in the east, as prevailing winds from the In...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Humpback Whale movements within the South Pacific
Mortality due to entanglement and collisions with ships has been reported within the Southern Hemisphere. To varying degrees these threats are all present in both the Oceania region and the Southern Ocean. The Internati...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The long migration of the Humpback Whale
Humpback annual migrations between feeding grounds in polar waters to mating and calving grounds in tropical waters are amongst the longest of any mammal. Following heavy exploitation during much of the 19th and 20th c...
15 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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