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Tag: Ocean

World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice
Sea-ice draft is the thickness of the part of the ice that is submerged under the sea. Comparison of sea-ice draft data acquired on submarine cruises between 1993 and 1997 with similar data acquired between 1958 and 1976...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal issues in the islands of Comoros and Mayotte
With poverty and high population density this group of volcanic islands between Eastern Africa and Madagascar faces challenges in the management of the coastal environment. The islands are fringed by magnificent coral re...
23 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Population and growth, projections and historic data
The population has rapidly increased in Africa, to reach approximately 905 million inhabitants by 2005. The rate of the annual growth is levelling out after seeing a peak around 1990. Out of the sub-regions, the populati...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Caspian Sea - salinity
The Caspian Sea has internal drainage, which means that it does not have an outlet to the World Ocean. All water entering the sea accumulates or evaporates. The sea surface salinity in the sea exhibits a gradient, with t...
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Overview of renewable energy sources
This chart shows eight different sources of renewable energy and explains advantages and drawbacks of each - wind, sun (photovoltaic and thermal), geothermal, wood, ocean, waste, water (hydroelectricity).
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon cycle
Carbon is the basis of all organic substances, from fossil fuels to human cells. On Earth, carbon is continually on the move – cycling through living things, the land, ocean, atmosphere. What happens when humans start dr...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperature trends (1976 - 2000)
Over the 20th century there has been a consistent, large-scale warming of both the land and ocean surface, with largest increases in temperature over the midand high latitudes of northern continents. This graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nenets Autonomous Okrug, reference map
Nenets Autonomous Okrug is an administrative region in Arctic Northwest Russia, covering some 176000 sq km of tundra and marshland. The capital city of the region is Narian-Mar. Off the coast are parts of the Arctic ocea...
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long pe...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea routes - Northern sea route and Northwest passage
Sea routes along the edges of the Arctic ocean, or rather along the coasts of Northern Canada and Russia, holds potential for decreasing the number of days in shipping goods from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts in Europe ...
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Export of fisheries products in Africa
For some African countries, particularly in West-Africa and to lesser extent also countries along the Indian Ocean, fisheries contribute significantly to exports. Remarkable is also that the fish sector is important for ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas and oil and gas infrastructure
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Protected areas in the Barents ecoregion
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of mi...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Albedo of basic thick sea ice surface types
The albedo for different surface conditions on the sea ice range widely, from roughly 85 per cent of radiation reflected for snow-covered ice to 7 per cent for open water. These two surfaces cover the range from the larg...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005
The age of sea ice in the Arctic is changing, and not only the extent and concentrations. Studies show that in recent years there is a higher proportion of younger ice to older ice than was observed in the late 1980s. Th...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice sheets, schematic illustration for Greenland and Antarctica
The ice cover in Greenland and Antarctica has two components – thick, grounded, inland ice that rests on a more or less solid bed, and thinner floating ice shelves and glacier tongues. An ice sheet is actually a giant gl...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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