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Tag: Ocean

Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve
Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is steadily rising, and oceans directly assimilate CO2. As ocean concentration of CO2 increases, the oceans automatically become more acidic. This, in turn, may have severe impacts on co...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
About shelfwater
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habit...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Tropical sea temperature rises and coral reefs - climate change scenarios
The impacts of coral reefs from rising sea temperatures. When coral reefs become heat-exposed they die, leaving the white dead coral, also known as bleaching. With even moderate pollution, the coral are easily overgrown ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the mo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
About scenarios
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in fisheries and aquaculture production (2000-2005)
The world's marine fisheries have stagnated or slightly declined in the last decade, offset only by increases in aquaculture production. A major reason why the decline has not become more evident is likely because of adv...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Indications of structural changes in the marine ecosystem, catch ratios of predatory and plankton feeding fish
Three-quarters of fish stocks are currently exploited to the maximum extent, if not excessively. The Northeast Atlantic Ocean continues to exhibit declining catches, as well as a shift towards fish at lower levels in the...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in marine and freshwater populations
The Marine Species Population Index provides an assessment of the average change over time in the populations of 217 species of marine mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The index represents the average value of six reg...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
River runoff by continent, 1921-1985
River runoff represents the accumlated water, from preciptation and meltwater, that feeds into rivers that feeds into seas. The estimated annual figures in this graphic is what volume of water that ends up in the World O...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human activities leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal [and marine] areas. This graphic shows the extent to which twelve different human activities cause environme...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Fiji, topographic map
The Republic of Fiji is a small island country in the South Pacific Ocean. The country has a population of 850 000 people spread out over an archipelago of islands. The largest ones, Viti Levu and Vanua Leva houses the m...
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean bathymetric map
The continental shelves, ridges and sea mounts are the most productive areas in terms of biodiversity, and is of highest importance for economic activities. It is also here that natural resources extraction - such as oil...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long pe...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Iceland, topographic map
Iceland is located in Northern Europe, is an island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK, comprising 103,000 sq km. It has an estimated population of 296,737 (2005). Major environme...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, reference map
This map locates two groups of islands, outside continental Alaska - the Pribiliof and Aleutian Islands. These islands are located in the Pacific Ocean and the south end of the Bering Sea in the Arctic, and are a part of...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nenets Autonomous Okrug, reference map
Nenets Autonomous Okrug is an administrative region in Arctic Northwest Russia, covering some 176000 sq km of tundra and marshland. The capital city of the region is Narian-Mar. Off the coast are parts of the Arctic ocea...
17 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic sea routes - Northern sea route and Northwest passage
Sea routes along the edges of the Arctic ocean, or rather along the coasts of Northern Canada and Russia, holds potential for decreasing the number of days in shipping goods from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts in Europe ...
13 Feb 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Scenarios of sea level rise, now - 2100
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean sea level increases relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Taking into account the ranges in the estimate of climate sensitivity and ice melt parameters, and...
01 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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