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Tag: Ocean

Intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Basin
Global average temperature increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century, while sea levels rose by 9 to 20 cm. The IPCC projects increases in the global average surface temperature by between 1.4°C and 5.8°C and in sea leve...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major River Systems in the Arctic
The Arctic has several of the world’s largest rivers.This graphic shows the major river systems of the Arctic and their annual discharges in cubic kilometres, and the catchment area of the Arctic Ocean. The major river s...
28 Sep 2005 - by CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna); see source field
Piscivore-zooplanktivore Index
Shows the Piscivore-zooplanktivore ratio between the years 1950-1995, in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and their relationship in the trophic composition of the ecosystem, which shows an ondulating trend, which has decrea...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coral reefs at risk from human activities
Population growth and technology: operating together these two factors account for the major causes of coral reef decline - excessive domestic and agricultural waste pouring into ocean waters, poor land-use practices tha...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Arctic pelagic food web
The marine animal food chain is very complex and multilayered as are most food chains. This is a quick reference to represent the complete food chain in regards to pelagic crustaceans and invertebrates.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Antarctic convergence
The Antarctic convergence represents an important climatic boundary between air and water masses, and is also an approximate boundary for the Southern Ocean, surrounding the Antarctic continent. The water around the land...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sites with dead zones (oxygen depletion on the sea bottom)
Dead zones (hypoxic i.e. oxygen deficient water) in the coastal zones are increasing, typically surrounding major industrial and agricultural centers. This is commonly occuring due to nutrient pollution, in the form of n...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated contributions to sea-level rise (1993-2003)
The two main reasons for sea-level rise are thermal expansion of ocean waters as they warm, and increase in the ocean mass, principally from land-based sources of ice (glaciers and ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenla...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ratio of wastewater treatment
Sewage treatment is low or absent in many parts of the World, leading to eutrophication of the coastal zone, (toxic) algae blooms and dramatically reduce the ability of coral to recover from bleaching events dramatically...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Plankton distribution changes, due to climate changes - North Sea
With melting sea ice and warming of the oceans, marine species change their distributions, affecting entire food chains and ocean productivity. In 2005 the subtropical dinoflagellate Ceratium hexacanthum was found in CPR...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Coastal regions with observations of dense shelf water flushing
Knowledge and mapping of these processes is still scarce due to uneven research effort. The map shows sites with known dense shelf water cascading phenomena, which often may involve the 'flushing' effect. It is most like...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World fisheries hotspots, 2004
The World’s most productive fishing grounds are confined to major hotspots, less than 10% of the World oceans. The maps shows annual catch (tonnes per km2) for the World’s oceans. Notice the strong geographic concurrence...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
depth
About depth
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
scenario
About scenario
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of coldwater and tropical coral reefs
Coral reefs are marine ridges or mounds, which have formed over millennia as a result of the deposition of calcium carbonate by living organisms, predominantly corals, but also a rich diversity of other organisms such as...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
canyondsw
About canyondsw
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
stocks
About stocks
29 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change and tropical coral reefs, scenarios for bleaching events
Projected areas of above normal sea temperature where coral bleaching is likely to occur for the SRES A2 scenario (continuing current trends) by two different models, the PCM (1.7°C increase in 100 years) and the HadCM3 ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Acidification due to climate change - impacts for oceans and coral reefs
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase from land use changes and emissions from fossil fuels - so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process. The skeletons of ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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