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Tag: Ocean

Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying t...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufac...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Development in Offshore wind capacity
Offshore wind, currently around 3 000 MW, has mainly been concentrated in northern European countries, around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Europe’s leadership is primarily attributed to public policy and a thriving...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Spots of potential for wave energy harvest
Wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the ocean surface. Wave power varies considerably in different parts of the world, making it more economically feasible to harness ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Looking further offshore and in deeper waters
The high capital cost of offshore foundations bounds offshore wind energy to near shore locations. Most of the capacity has been installed in relatively shallow waters (under 20 m deep) no more than 20 km from the coast...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Estimated ecosystem services value
Marine ecosystem services have substantial economic value. While exact figures are still debated, attempts to estimate the value of coastal ecosystem services have found such values to be on the order of trillions of US ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World oceans, a cornucopia of goods and services
Throughout the course of history, humans have been drawn to coastal areas to enjoy the bounty of the sea. As much as 40 per cent of the world’s population now lives within 100 kilometres of the shoreline (Martínez, et al...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Global Ocean Acidification
As carbon concentrations in the atmosphere increase, so do concentrations in the ocean, with resultant acidification as a natural chemical process.
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Larimichthys polyactis Catch in early 2000s and predicted Catch Shift
(a) Current (early 2000s) and (b) climate-shifted distributions of the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis (Sciaenidae). The climate-shifted distribution was predicted by a dynamic bioclimate envelope model descr...
06 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future clima...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Thermohaline Circulation
If the large-scale ocean circulation is disturbed by processes altering heat and salinity in the Arctic Ocean, the consequences may be felt worldwide. The mechanism involved is the world-encompassing meridional overturni...
27 Oct 2009 - by Laura Margueritte
Uptake of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere
Arctic marine systems currently provide a substantial carbon sink but the continuation of this service depends critically on arctic climate change impacts on ice, freshwater inputs, and ocean acidification.
27 Oct 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World ocean thermohaline circulation (alternative version)
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. W...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003
Mass-balance estimates for Greenland show thickening at high elevations since the early 1990s at rates that increased to about 4 cm per year after 2000, consistent with expectations of increasing snowfall in a warming cl...
18 Apr 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ocean currents and sea ice extent
Arctic Ocean circulate in a large clockwise rotational pattern moving from east to west around the polar ice cap. This rotating pattern, known as a gyre, occurs as a result of the clockwise winds that typically occur in ...
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reference map for the city of Malindi, Kenya
This map locates the city of Malindi (population approximatly 150 000 inhabitants) in Kenya. The city is located on the Kenyan coast, on the Indian Ocean. The map also displays a world map for further reference, as well ...
20 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise: Costa Rica coastal communities under threat
Sea level rise is an important indicator of climate change. A rise in sea level may result in flooding, salinisation of fresh water, coastal erosion and in some cases loss of land to the ocean. As depicted, some coastal...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
ENSO Variability index
Variability in the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index 1982-2004, and temperature variation for those years - plus or minus 3 degrees maximum in those years of the ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean and affected regi...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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