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Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per surface unit of arable land is highest in countries of the northern watershed, with the exception of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania. In contrast, point-source release is highest on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Other point sou...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Discharge of selected pollutants Discharge of selected pollutants
Data referring to the Biological Oxygen Demand load (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels were available for all five of the Caspian countries through the Baseline Inventory Report.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying to address these issues. The key sectors that are involved include the agriculture, waste-water management, and fertilizer production sectors. As shown in the figure for the year 2000, models indicate that globally, roughly equal a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Unbalancing the cycle Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dead zones and fertilizers Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufactured nitrogen fertilizer products has been global environment problems associated with excess nutrients, specifically the problems of eutrophication, coastal hypoxic zones and nitrate contaminated groundwater. Tracing the format...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Production of nitrogen Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). Based on the figures from Dawson and Hilton (2011), over 2 billion tonnes of reactive nitrogen was manufactured in that period. The enormous increase in artificial fertilizer production catalyzed by the Haber-Bosch process has a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Contrast between contemporary and pre-disturbance transports of total nitrogen through inland aquatic systems resulting from anthropogenic acceleration of this nutrient cycle Contrast between contemporary and pre-disturbance transports of total nitrogen through inland aquatic systems resulting from anthropogenic acceleration of this nutrient cycle
While the peculiarities of individual pollutants, rivers, and governance define the specific character of water pollution, the general patterns observed for nitrogen are representative of anthropogenic changes to the transport of waterborne constituents. Elevated contemporary loadings to one part of the system (such as croplands) often reverberate to other parts of the system (to coastal zones, for example), exceeding the capacity of natural syst...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nitrogen runo Nitrogen runo
Fertiliser and pesticides used to cultivate feedstocks, as well as contaminated effuents discharged from conversion plants, can cause increasing levels of pollution to waterways. This may constrain the growth of biofuels production in developed and developing countries with already high agricultural production levels. An example illustrates the level of nitrogen persistent in various regions of the United States and agrochemical use for di...
01 Mar 2012 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, better communication and advances in market and trade systems. This has also increased the demand and use of irrigation, phosphorus and nitrogen.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15
The graph shows Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 from 1970 to 1992. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Yearly applied nitrogen fertilizers Yearly applied nitrogen fertilizers
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). The graphic shows a decline in yearly applied nitrogen fertilizers.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Industrial NO2 emissions Industrial NO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). The graphic shows industrial NO2 emissions from combustion in manufacturing industry and industrial production processes.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transport NO2 emissions Transport NO2 emissions
Graphics from the year 2000 Baltic 21 biannual indicator-based status report on sustainable development in the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000). This graphic shows transport NO2 emissions in Baltic countries from 1990 to 1998.
10 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030 Trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030
The graphic show trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations in the Baltic Sea from 1900 to 1995 with projections to 2030. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fertilizer consumption in the Nordic countries, 1980-1996 Fertilizer consumption in the Nordic countries, 1980-1996
The graph shows the consumption of fertilizers in the Nordic countries form 1980 to 1996 with projections to 2006. The fertilizers included are phosphate, Potash and Nitrogen which are the three most important nutrients for crop growth.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environmental trends Nordic countries ( II ) Environmental trends Nordic countries ( II )
The graph shows environmental trends in Nordic countries (II). The graph demonstrates negative and positive environmental developments in areas such as marine water and discharges of Nitrogen, fresh water resources, and inland water.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population density in the Baltic Sea drainage basin Population density in the Baltic Sea drainage basin
The density of people per square kilometers have been calculated from various statistical sources, and displays the situation at approximately 1990. Population, and specifically cities, act as driving forces in regards to eutrophication on the Baltic Sea, primarily through nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous) released through sewage plants.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arable land in the Baltic Sea region Arable land in the Baltic Sea region
Ratio of arable land out of total land use in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Agriculture is one of the main contributors to the nutrient (in this case, primarily nitrogen) influx into the Baltic Sea, and thus a main driver for the eutrophication problems in the sea. The displays the situation at approximately 1990.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pasture Land - Baltic Sea drainage basin Pasture Land - Baltic Sea drainage basin
Ratio of pasture land total land use in the Baltic Sea drainage basin. Agriculture is one of the main contributors to the nutrient (in this case, primarily nitrogen) influx into the Baltic Sea, and thus a main driver for the eutrophication problems in the sea. The displays the situation at approximately 1990.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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