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Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The main regulatory instrument aimed at the protection of the Mediterranean marine and coastal environment is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention) which entered into force in 2004. The Barcelona Convention’s main objectives are "to prevent, abate, combat and to the fullest extent possible eliminate pollution of the Mediterranean Sea Area" and "to protect and...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol, adopted 1976, in force 1978, amended 1995), • The Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency (Emergency Protocol, adopted 1976, i...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast
Tourism contributes CO2 emissions, mostly through increased use of air and road transportation. Beyond that, the major direct pressure from coastal tourism on the marine and coastal environment is the demand for space, both in the coastal zone, resulting mainly in urbanisation, and on the coastline itself, through construction of marinas and other infrastructure that leads to concretisation of the shores. The concentration of tourism within spec...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Chlorophyll-a concentration Chlorophyll-a concentration
Climatogical yearly mean of chlorophyll-a concentration.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot and Taupier-Letage 2005). This general circulation flow impinges on the coastal regions and strongly influences the local dynamics of currents. Shelf areas in the Mediterranean are comparatively small and are separated from the dee...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean surface salinity Mean surface salinity
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity of 36,2 psu (practical salinity units) near Gibraltar to 38,6 psu in the Levantine basin; • the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), formed in the Levantine basin, lying in depth between 200 and 800 m, and characterised by temp...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean surface temperature Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the sea and the atmosphere. The water deficit, caused by greater evaporation than precipitation and river run-off, is mainly compensated for by the inflow of Atlantic water through the Straits of Gibraltar and by the water contributio...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity of 36,2 psu (practical salinity units) near Gibraltar to 38,6 psu in the Levantine basin; • the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), formed in the Levantine basin, lying in depth between 200 and 800 m, and characterised by temp...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Total annual precipitations Total annual precipitations
Mediterranean river discharge patterns depend on properties of the atmospheric water budget as well as on the geographical characteristics of the Mediterranean catchment. A substantial latitudinal gradient characterises Mediterranean precipitation year-round, with dry areas along the African coast and significantly wetter ones north of the Mediterranean Sea (Struglia et al. 2004). Winter is the main rainy season for the European land regions,...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Mean annual temperature Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-south gradient, with local variations superimposed by geography.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual discharge, the ten largest rivers contributing to the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, Drin-Bojana, Nile, Neretva, Ebro, Tiber, Adige, Seyhan, and Ceyhan. These rivers account for half of the mean annual discharge, with the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Geography, physiography and landscapes Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main body of Europe. Numerous islands correspond to isolated tectonic blocks, the summits of submarine ridges, or the tips of undersea volcanoes. The largest islands are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, and Crete, and the major islan...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Mediterranean countries Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted some 250 million visitors in 2008. In France, tourism provides 43 per cent of jobs in coastal regions, generating more revenue than fishing or shipping. In the UK, tourism to the coast is worth £110 billion (approximately US$171 ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta
Rising sea level would destroy weak parts of the sand belt, which is essential for the protection of lagoons and the low-lying reclaimed lands in the Nile delta of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea). The impacts would be very serious: One third of Egypt's fish catches are made in the lagoons. Sea level rise would change the water quality and affect most fresh water fish. Valuable agricultural land would be inundated.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010) Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010)
The Black and Mediterranean Seas are one of the main outlets for transporting fuel resources that have been extracted around the Caspian Sea region and from further inland. Oil is transported in pipelines to the ports on the Black Sea. Forecast project a dramatic increase by 2010, including the opening of a new port in Turkey.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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