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Tag: Mediterranean Sea

Status of Ratification of the Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The main regulatory instrument aimed at the protection of the Mediterranean marine and coastal environment is the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (Barce...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Timeline of Barcelona Convention and its Protocols
The Barcelona Convention now has a total of seven associated Protocols: • The Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft or Incineration at Sea (Dumping Protocol...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourist pressure on Mediterranean coast
Tourism contributes CO2 emissions, mostly through increased use of air and road transportation. Beyond that, the major direct pressure from coastal tourism on the marine and coastal environment is the demand for space, ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Chlorophyll-a concentration
Climatogical yearly mean of chlorophyll-a concentration.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Surface circulation in the Mediterranean Sea
The large-scale circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been described as sub-basin-scale and mesoscale gyres interconnected and bounded by currents and jets with strong seasonal and inter-annual variability (Millot a...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface salinity
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface temperature
A large thermohaline cell (affected by both temperature and salinity) characterises the general circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Circulation is driven by the water balance deficit and by the heat fluxes between the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean Sea water masses: vertical distribution
Schematically, the Mediterranean Sea comprises three main water masses (EEA and UNEP 1999): • the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW), found in the surface layer, with a thickness of 50–200 m and characterised by a salinity...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Total annual precipitations
Mediterranean river discharge patterns depend on properties of the atmospheric water budget as well as on the geographical characteristics of the Mediterranean catchment. A substantial latitudinal gradient characteris...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean annual temperature
Climatically, the Mediterranean is characterised by warm temperatures, winter-dominated rainfall, dry summers, and a profusion of microclimates (UNEP/MAP/MED POL 2003). Mean annual temperature follows a marked north-to-...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Tourism in the Mediterranean countries
The economic importance of coastal tourism is unquestionable, although due to data limitations there is no comprehensive analysis of the sector’s contribution to the global economy. The Mediterranean Basin alone hosted ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Potential impact of sea level rise: Nile Delta
Rising sea level would destroy weak parts of the sand belt, which is essential for the protection of lagoons and the low-lying reclaimed lands in the Nile delta of Egypt (Mediterranean Sea). The impacts would be very ser...
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010)
The Black and Mediterranean Seas are one of the main outlets for transporting fuel resources that have been extracted around the Caspian Sea region and from further inland. Oil is transported in pipelines to the ports on...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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