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Tag: Mediterranean Sea

Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through delib...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean cumulative impact model
None of the factors affecting the Mediterranean Sea and its coasts, along with its inhabitants, exist in isolation. Different pressures act over time and in unison to affect the resilience of ecosystems and their ability...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of environmental impact on the Mediterranean Sea
The National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) has undertaken modelling to perform comprehensive spatial analysis and mapping of human pressures throughout the Mediterranean Basin. This work builds o...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Number of species in IUCN Red List categories from Mediterranean countries
Mediterranean species and habitats face a number of pressures from human activities, including over-exploitation; degradation of critical habitats; invasive alien species; pollution, including excess nutrients, toxic pol...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MA...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Biodiversity in the Mediterranean
Species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin tends to increase from east to west with 43 % of known species occurring in the Eastern Mediterranean, 49 % in the Adriatic, and 87 % in the Western Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Composition of benthic communities
Benthic communities are among the first to disappear under conditions of heavy stress. Benthic organisms play an important ecological role by reworking the sediments, which affects the flux of nutrients across the sedi...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Hypoxia in the Mediterranean Sea
Hypoxic (low oxygen)conditions can be caused by eutrophication. The decrease in oxygen is due both to algae reducing dissolved oxygen through respiration and the decomposition of dead algae. In extreme cases, oxygen depl...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mean surface productivity and eutrophic and hypoxic hot spots in the Mediterranean
Eutrophic areas are high primary productivity zones due to excessive nutrients and therefore subject to algal blooms resulting in poor water quality. This can also lead to hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia is the condition w...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per su...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and d...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea surface temperature increase
Climate change accelerates the rates of hydrologically-influenced degradation and can compound its impacts. According to CIESM, Western Mediterranean waters are experiencing a substantial warming trend (+0,2°C in last t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Sea level variations in the Mediterranean
Sea level is rising significantly in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an average 12 cm rise registered on the Levantine coast since 1992. However, causes are not yet known, and a cause-effect relationship with climate cha...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Aquaculture in the Mediterranean and Black seas
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from farmed fish.More than half of aquaculture production in the Mediterranean comes from western Euro...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Aquaculture production in the Mediterranean
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector in the world, with about one-third of global fish consumption coming from framed fish. Although the Mediterranean region has a long history of fish farming, aquaculture and ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Mediterranean Sea fish landings
Total fish landings increased exponentially from 1950 to 1980, with current production fluctuating around 800.000 tonnes annually (Garcia 2011) during the last three decades. Of that total, 85 % comes from six countri...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Non-indigenous species over the 20th Century
Both the number and rate of non-indigenous introductions to the Mediterranean have been increasing in recent years (UNEP/ MAP 2009). Currently, about a thousand non-indigenous aquatic species have been identified in t...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Non-indigenous species
Maritime transportation and aquaculture are the main ways non-indigenous species enter the Western Basin of the Mediterranean. Migration through the Suez Canal is responsible for most non-indigenous species in the Easte...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Major types of marine litter in the Mediterranean
A large proportion of marine litter is plastics (UNEP 2009). The impact of large plastic material on the environment has been widely studied. Effects include entanglement of marine animals in plastic and ingestion of ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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