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Mobile phone subscribers Mobile phone subscribers
Mobile phones were launched in 1984 and the market has been booming ever since. In 20 years they have spread like wildfire. By September 2004 there were 344 million subscribers (out of a population of 380 million) in the 15 (old) members of the European Union. According to Nokia there will be 2 000 million cellphone users worldwide by 2008.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Human impact, year 2032 (markets first scenario) Human impact, year 2032 (markets first scenario)
The GLOBIO-2 model is based on settlements and modern infrastructure such as roads, powerlines and pipelines. This map presents the possible situation in 2032, using the GEO-3 markets first scenario. This scenario suggests that most of the world adopts the values and expectations prevailing in today’s industrialized countries.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross National Income (GNI) kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Gross National Income (GNI) kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
The rationale of the common soviet market and economic system has disappeared, forcing Central Asian states to find their own position in the global market without the support of a redistributive economy. Their geographical position landlocked between two economic and political giants, china and Russia, makes their task difficult, especially in poor countries. All three economies are predominantly agricultural. They all rely on primary exports, e...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population, area and economy affected by a 1 m sea level rise (global and regional estimates, based on today's situation) Population, area and economy affected by a 1 m sea level rise (global and regional estimates, based on today's situation)
Even for today’s socio-economic conditions, both regionally and globally, large numbers of people and significant economic activity are exposed to sea-level rise. The densely populated megadeltas are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise. More than 1 million people living in the Ganges- Brahmaputra, Mekong and Nile deltas will be directly affected simply if current rates of sea-level rise continue to 2050 and there is no adaptation. More than 5...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Economic benefits under alternate management practices Economic benefits under alternate management practices
In each case, the net benefits from the more sustainably managed ecosystem are greater than those from the converted ecosystem, even though the private (market) benefits would be greater from the converted ecosystem.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total carbon market value per year Total carbon market value per year
The total value of the carbon market for 2003 topped $300 million. And, depending on international regulation, some observers project that it will increase to $10–40 billion by 2010. Markets are also being created for more diverse commodities ranging from aquifer recharge credits, renewable energy credits, wasteload allocations for point and non-point source pollutants, and mitigation credits for wetlands, biodiversity, and riparian buffer zones.
01 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003 Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share Monsanto Corporation's global vegetable seed market share
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food sovereignty is defined as the right of peoples and sovereign states to democratically determine their own agricultural and food policies.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in real commodity prices Trends in real commodity prices
Agriculture is a fundamental instrument for sustainable development; about 70% of the world’s poor are rural and most are involved in farming. National policy needs to arrive at a balance between a higher prices which can benefit producers and lead to a more vibrant rural economy, and lower prices, which, although volatile on the international market, can improve food access for poor consumers.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Market concentration Market concentration
Agricultural trade is increasingly organized in global chains, dominated by a few large transnational buyers (trading companies, agrifood processors and companies involved in production of commodities). In these globalized chains primary producers often capture only a fraction of the international price of a trade commodity, so the poverty reduction and rural development effects of integration in global supply chains have been far less than optim...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Developing countries: share of agricultural exports in the world market (Hong Kong scenario) Developing countries: share of agricultural exports in the world market (Hong Kong scenario)
Agricultural trade can offer opportunities for the poor, but there are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural livelihoods. The poorest developing countries are net losers under most trade liberalization scenarios. 99
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Top 10 global food retailers Top 10 global food retailers
Agricultural commodities the world have seen a decline in prices accompanied by wide fluctuations over the past decades. IAASTD projections of the global food system indicate a tightening of world food markets, with increasing market concentration in a few hands and rapid growth of global retail chains in all developing countries, natural and physical resource scarcity, and adverse implications for food security.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries
It is estimated that exported timber only represents 5 per cent of the wood cut in tropical forests. 10 per cent is timber used locally and the majority - 85 per cent- of wood is for fuel. While exports are generally the preserve of large scale enterprises, the domestic market is dominated by small forest enterprises. In many countries the forest sector constitutes mainly small forest enterprises - employing from 10 to 100 full-time employees. Th...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Supermarket share of retail food sales Supermarket share of retail food sales
Large urban markets create the scope for the establishment of big supermarket chains, with implications for the entire food supply chain. In 2002, the share of supermarkets in the processed/packaged food retail market was 33% in Southeast Asia and 63% in East Asia (Figure 33). The share of supermarkets in the fresh foods market was roughly 15–20% in Southeast Asia and 30% in East Asia outside of China. The 2001 supermarket share of Chinese ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water economies, India - formal vs informal Water economies, India - formal vs informal
Formal and informal, differences and sizes in ratio - related to regulation and control, as well as market mechanisms. India compared to industrialized countries.
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Indonesian exports of forest products Indonesian exports of forest products
Exports of wood products from Indonesia, with final destinations such as China, Japan and North America. Almost three quarters of the wood end in destinations in Asia. In the black market, with illegal timber, the products are known to change country of origin and their labeling and classification as they are smuggled.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia
Ramin, Gonystylus sp., is a group of tropical hardwood species in South East Asia, listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list, and the trade of the timber is regulated under CITES. Illegal logging of these species is common in Indonesia, even in protected areas. The timber is transported to sawmills in Indonesia and Malaysia and further exported to destinations in Asia, North America, Europe and elsewhere. Final market prices might amount to as hi...
22 Jan 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land use values Land use values
The area where orangutans occur can be separated into two main habitat types: forest on peat-lands (Tripa) and forests on mineral soils (Batang Toru), and the results are presented for these types separately. Values for carbon were calculated according to Butler et al. 2009 model using a discount rate of 6.5% and voluntary market prices (mean USD 13.33t/CO2, range USD 9.43-17, forest carbon report). Under the fixed scenario the carbon price remai...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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