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Tag: Marine environment

Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). B...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Oil spills from 1970 to 2010
The most obvious potential source of serious pollution from ships is the discharge of oil (cargoes or bunkers) as a result of ship losses. However, there has been a dramatic reduction in the number of major oil spills ov...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Transportation emission
More recently, however, the focus of the industry and its regulators – encouraged by far greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues amongst all stakeholders – has also been on the wider potential impacts...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector
In July 2011, international shipping became the first industrial sector to adopt binding international rules for the adoption of technical measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These technical measures were adopted by IMO as...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habit...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs et...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the mo...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters
This graphic illustrates that there is a strong correlation between the world's industrial areas and the areas in which seasonally oxygen-depleted waters occur. The accompanying text explains some of the effects of land-...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nitrate in major rivers
Considering the data for all the rivers at the continental level, there has been little change in nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations between the two decades under comparison. Changes in the median value were not statisticall...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Sea level rise and assessment of the state of the marine environment
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This will cause some low-lying coastal areas to become completely submerged, while others will increasingly face short-lived hi...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Nitrate levels: concentrations at river mouths
Nutrients are essential to life. In aquatic systems, nitrogen and phosphorus are the two nutrients that most commonly control the growth of aquatic plants, algae and bacteria. Nitrogen and phosphorus are considered to be...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Human actions leading to coastal degradation
Physical alteration and the destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most significant threats to coastal areas. Half of the world’s wetlands, and even more of its mangrove forests, have been lost over the pa...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
Coastal populations and shoreline degradation
Unsurprisingly, the coastal areas with the greatest population densities are also those with the most shoreline degradation. The areas surrounding the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and southern Asia have the highest prop...
01 Oct 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen depleted waters
This graphic illustrates the strong link between areas with high densities of industrial activity and zones of seasonally oxygen-depleted waters. There is a strong link between areas with high densities of industrial ac...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillipe Rekacewicz, (Le Monde diplomatique) February 2008
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