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Sources of marine litter Sources of marine litter
Marine litter is “any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment” (Galgani et al. 2010). It reaches the marine environment through deliberate disposal or unintentional discharge, either at sea or from land by way of rivers, drainage systems and wind.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean Seabed habitats in Western Mediterranean
The Mediterranean Basin has a wide array of habitats that include sea grass beds, intact rocky shorelines, persistent frontal systems, estuaries, underwater canyons, deepwater coral assemblages and sea mounts (UNEP/MAP 2012).
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region Fertilizer use and nitrogen release in the Mediterranean region
Agriculture is the largest non-point source of pollutants in the Mediterranean (UNEP/MAP 2011). Agriculture-related nutrients enter the sea through groundwater, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Nitrogen consumption per surface unit of arable land is highest in countries of the northern watershed, with the exception of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Albania. In contrast, point-source release is highest on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Other point sou...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008 Sources of emissions of nutrients in the Mediterranean region, 2008
Nutrients in seawater present a paradox. Nutrients are, of course, essential for life. In the oligotrophic environment of the Mediterranean, the ecosystems with the most nutrients are generally the most productive and diverse. At the same time, many Mediterranean nearshore areas are threatened by nutrient over-enrichment due to coastal and watershed development. Many developed coastal areas suffer particularly from increased influx of dissolve...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising that impacts on marine habitats are particularly severe there (UNEP/MAP 2012). Benthic, or sea-bottom, habitats and the communities associated with them are especially vulnerable.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Blue flags up! Blue flags up!
Marine environments are key assets of global tourism, and their preservation is ultimately a precondition for the survival of marine and coastal tourism.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen export by rivers for world regions
The figure shows the amounts of nitrogen exported by rivers per year and provides a forecast for the future.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Unbalancing the cycle Unbalancing the cycle
The figure compares the flow of nitrogen between the the years 1890 and 1990.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Dead zones and fertilizers Dead zones and fertilizers
The production and use of reactive nitrogen based artificial fertilizers has had huge global benefits providing food for billions through the green revolution. The down side of the increased availability of cheap manufactured nitrogen fertilizer products has been global environment problems associated with excess nutrients, specifically the problems of eutrophication, coastal hypoxic zones and nitrate contaminated groundwater. Tracing the format...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Production of nitrogen Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). Based on the figures from Dawson and Hilton (2011), over 2 billion tonnes of reactive nitrogen was manufactured in that period. The enormous increase in artificial fertilizer production catalyzed by the Haber-Bosch process has a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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World cargo shipping lanes World cargo shipping lanes
The international shipping industry is responsible for the carriage of about 90 per cent of world trade by volume and is vital to the functioning of the global economy. Without shipping, intercontinental trade, the bulk transport of raw materials and the import/export of affordable food and goods would simply not be possible (ICS, 2012).
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Oil spills from 1970 to 2010 Oil spills from 1970 to 2010
The most obvious potential source of serious pollution from ships is the discharge of oil (cargoes or bunkers) as a result of ship losses. However, there has been a dramatic reduction in the number of major oil spills over the last four decades, including since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Transportation emission Transportation emission
More recently, however, the focus of the industry and its regulators – encouraged by far greater awareness of the importance of environmental issues amongst all stakeholders – has also been on the wider potential impacts which shipping can have on the environment. In particular, there was awareness of the need to address the impact on local ecosystems of foreign microorganisms imported in ships’ ballast water; the danger to public health and the ...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector Projected annual CO2 emissions from the shipping sector
In July 2011, international shipping became the first industrial sector to adopt binding international rules for the adoption of technical measures to reduce CO2 emissions. These technical measures were adopted by IMO as amendments to MARPOL Annex VI which is expected to enter into force in 2013.
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills Seaborne oil trade and tanker spills
The ultimate goal of the shipping industry and its regulators is zero accidents and zero pollution. Although these goals have not yet been fully achieved, considerable progress has been made, especially in the context of pollution from ships, an achievement all the more impressive when it is considered that the total amount of seaborne trade, measured in tonne-miles, has almost doubled since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 – from 17.54 billion tonne...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Cumulative impacts on the marine environment Cumulative impacts on the marine environment
Climate change may, through effects on ocean currents, elevated sea temperatures, coral bleaching, shifts in marine life, ocean acidification and much more severely exacerbate the combined actions of accelerating coastal development, coastal pollution and dead zones, invasive species, bottom trawling and over-harvest. These impacts will be the strongest in 10-15% of the Worlds oceans. These areas, however, are concurrent with the most productive ...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment Major pathways and origins of invasive species infestations in the marine environment
All across the planet, the number and severity of outbreaks and infestations of invasive species (i.e. species purposefully or accidentally introduced in non-native environments) is growing, and invasions of marine habitats are now occurring at an alarming rate. Exotic and invasive species have been identified by scientists and policymakers as a major threat to marine ecosystems, with dramatic effects on biodiversity, biological productivity, hab...
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Primary threats to the marine environment Primary threats to the marine environment
Each of the big five stressors (not in order of magnitude), 1) Climate change; 2) Pollution (mainly coastal), 3) Fragmentation and habitat loss (from e.g. dredging/trawling, use of explosives in fishing on coral reefs etc.), 4) Invasive species infestations, and 5) Over-harvest from fisheries may individually or combined result in severe impacts on the biological production of the worlds oceans and the services they provide to billions of people ...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions Invasive species in the marine environment - problem regions
The locations of major problem areas for invasive species infestations or occurrence of exotic species in the marine environment. The impacted areas are concurrent with the areas subjected to the worst pollution, the most intensive fisheries and bottom trawling, and major shipping routes. The areas in the figure have been highlighted based on an overview of literature, and the delineation of the areas are approximate.
01 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters Industrial areas and seasonal zones of oxygen-depleted waters
This graphic illustrates that there is a strong correlation between the world's industrial areas and the areas in which seasonally oxygen-depleted waters occur. The accompanying text explains some of the effects of land-based activities on the marine environment.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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