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The Cryosphere, components and world maps The Cryosphere, components and world maps
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected winter temperature changes in the Arctic Projected winter temperature changes in the Arctic
The changes in cold-season mean temperatures over Arctic land regions are broken into three latitudinal bands for each region, as shown on the small map (which has an outer rim of 50° N). Error bars represent standard deviation from the mean. Where greater warming is projected at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes, temperature gradients will be reduced along large north-flowing rivers and this will likely reduce break-up severity. The rever...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctica, topographic map Antarctica, topographic map
Antarctic is the fifth largest continent of the world at 14 million square kilometres and is covered by a permanent continental ice sheet. The ice is distributed in two major ice sheets, the East Antarctic and the West Antarctic, and in addition there are shelf ice, extending over the sea water. Antarctic inland ice ranges in thickness up to 5000 m, with an average thickness of about 2400 m, making Antarctica by far the highest of the continents....
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Cryosphere, world map The Cryosphere, world map
Snow and the various forms of ice - the cryosphere - play different roles within the climate system. The two continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland actively influence the global climate over time scales of millennia to millions of years, but may also have more rapid effects on, for example, sea level. Snow and sea ice, with their large areas but relatively small volumes, are connected to key interactions and feedbacks at global scales...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada Trends in spring temperatures and ice break-up dates in Canada
In Canada, recent evidence indicates a shortening of the freshwater-ice season over much of the country with the reduction being mainly attributable to earlier break ups. These trends match those in surface air temperature during the last 50 years. For example, similar spatial and temporal patterns have been found between trends (1966 to 1995) in autumn and spring 0°C isotherms (lines on a map showing location of 0°C air temperatures) and lake fr...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation) Hydropower potential (theoretical possitibility for electricity generation)
Hydropower, generating electricity through turbines, represents a clean and renewable energy source, but not without problems. Dams and reservoirs disrupt the natural flow, and may increase siltation and evaporation, in addition to severe impacts for wildlife, for instance migrating fish. The gross theoretical capability, presented in this map, represents a calculation based on the topography and precipitation in the countries, and is the amount ...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007 The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007
The political map and landscape in Europe has changed drastically in the period of 1957-2007. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the European Communities was formed in 1957 by the treaty of Rome, with six signatories. This was a time with considerable poltical tension between the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw pact, COMECON and associated countries) on one side, and NATO on the other. Through time, the communities expanded with the associated EFTA c...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 - with shipping routes
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost. This map features shipping routes in addition - as the sea ice is decreasing, the potential for developing shipping in the Arctic increases.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solar insolation Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This map presents solar insolation in Europe and neighboring countries, calculated to annual averages from monthly averages 1983 - 1993.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Degraded soils Degraded soils
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Very degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia). Degraded soils reduce the possibilities for agriculture, increases the expansion of drylands/desert and hightens the risk for erosion. This map presents the state of global soil degradation, fro...
06 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Skin colour map (indigenous people) Skin colour map (indigenous people)
The twin role played by the skin – protection from excessive UV radiation and absorption of enough sunlight to trigger the production of vitamin D – means that people living in the lower latitudes, close to the Equator, with intense UV radiation, have developed darker skin to protect them from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In contrast, those living in the higher latitudes, closer to the Poles, have developed fair skin to maximize vitamin ...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest systems Forest systems
Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products. The map shows areas with a canopy cover of at least 40% by woody plants taller than 5 meters.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Marine, coastal, and island systems Marine, coastal, and island systems
Marine systems are the world’s oceans. For mapping purposes, the map shows ocean areas where the depth is greater than 50 meters. Global fishery catches from marine systems peaked in the late 1980s and are now declining despite increasing fishing effort.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors in the Caucausus Protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors in the Caucausus
This map shows protected areas, priority conservation areas and wildlife corridors identified in 'Eco-regional Conservation Plan for the Caucasus'. Priority conservation areas were agreed where there is important concentration of plants, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fishes. Delineation of corridors were agreed where large mammals, birds, fish, and other animals need corridors for migration, dispersal and to maintain their population. ...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus
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Poverty in the Caucasus ecoregion Poverty in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus ecoregion, with the countries Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and parts of Russia, Turkey and Iran represents a region in transition. Poverty is a key factor in human and economic development. This map show still very high poverty, up to 73 per cent in regions such as Ingushetia and Georgia.
06 Nov 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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The Caucasus ecoregion, topographic map The Caucasus ecoregion, topographic map
The Caucasus ecoregion covers a total area of 580,000 km2, includes six countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russian and Turkey - and follows the ecoregion definition prepared by WWF in their Action plan for Caucasus. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range with its lofty peaks forms a formidable barrier between the northern and southern parts of the ecoregion. The Lesser Caucasus mountain chain extends across Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Aze...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze, cartographer
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Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
5
Arctic map, political Arctic map, political
The Arctic is extremely diverse in terms of landscapes, varying from pack and drift ice to rugged shores, flat coastal plains, rolling hills and mountains surpassing 6000 metres above sea level (Denali, 6,194 m asl, in sub-arctic and boreal Alaska). The region has rivers and lakes, tundra and the largest forests in the world (the Russian Taiga). This is a simple grayscale political map.
11 Feb 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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