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Geography, physiography and landscapes Geography, physiography and landscapes
A general overview of the Mediterranean region’s physical geography reveals an irregular, deeply indented coastline, especially in the north, where the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas jut southward from the main body of Europe. Numerous islands correspond to isolated tectonic blocks, the summits of submarine ridges, or the tips of undersea volcanoes. The largest islands are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Cyprus, and Crete, and the major islan...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Boundaries of the Arctic Council Working Groups Boundaries of the Arctic Council Working Groups
When defining Arctic regions, it is understood that no single, clear cut boundary exists to delineate their extent. Rather, this boundary will change with its application: environmental, biological, economic, jurisdictional, or social. For example the Arctic Council working groups have different definitions that reflect each of their interests. The Arctic Monitoring Assessment Program (AMAP), which predates the Arctic Council, created its ‘AMA...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin trans frontier conservation areas Zambezi River Basin trans frontier conservation areas
The Zambezi basin has several large transboundary protected areas where two or more countries participate in managing shared natural resources. The creation of Trans Frontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in the basin is regarded as one of the anchors for regional economic integration, socio-economic development and poverty reduction through multi-destination and crossborder tourism (SADC and SARDC 2008). The TFCAs in the Zambezi basin are at dif...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Kavango-Zambezi TFCA Kavango-Zambezi TFCA
In December 2006, the governments of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe signed an MOU establishing the KAZA TFCA. The TFCA covers an area of 287 000 square kilometres and stretches from the Khaudum National Park in Namibia in the west to Lake Kariba in Zimbabwe in the east (SARDC 2010).Thirty-six protected areas including national parks, game reserves, community conservancies and game management areas are included in the TFCA. One of...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin navigation system Zambezi River Basin navigation system
Navigation on the Zambezi River is both international and local. The main international transport routes are the Kazungula and Luangwa-Kanyemba, while major national routes are in the upper Zambezi River and on Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa. There are also small crossings that provide access to major markets (Denconsult 1998). There are major crossings on the Kabompo River, Kafue River and Chobe River in Namibia and Botswana, and on the Shire River ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin electrical infrastructure Zambezi River Basin electrical infrastructure
The estimated hydropower potential of the Zambezi River is in the order of 20 000 MW of which only 4 684 MW has been developed (Hirji et al. 2002). About 40 possible new hydropower plants with a total installation capacity of more than 13 000 MW have been identified in the basin. About 85 per cent of this capacity is on the Zambezi River itself while the remainder is on its tributaries. Close to half the mapped potential is in Mozambique, about 2...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Zimbabwe Map of Zimbabwe
Total Area of Country: 390 759 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 215 800 (55.2%) National Population in 2010: 13.5 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 9 059 850 (67.11%) Zimbabwe is located between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers, situated primarily on a high plateau that stretches across most of the country and has a subtropical climate tempered by the altitude. Savannah is the dominant ecosystem, with...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Zambia Map of Zambia
Total Area of Country: 752 614 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 577 900 (76.8%) National Population in 2010: 13 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 8 517 600 (65.52%) Zambia is a landlocked country resting on a high plateau with a subtropical climate characterized by a single rainy season. Savannah is the dominant ecosystem and covers the centre of the country, separating the rain forest in the northwe...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Tanzania Map of Tanzania
Total Area of Country: 945 087 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 27 300 (2.9%) National Population in 2010: 42 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 1 646 400 (03.92%) The United Republic of Tanzania, made up of mainland Tanganyika and the islands of Zanzibar, is surrounded by several large bodies of water including 1 300 km of coastline on the Indian Ocean and 2 375 km of shoreline along Africa’s three l...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Mozambique Map of Mozambique
Total Area of Country: 799 390 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 163 800 (20.5%) National Population in 2010: 22.4 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 5 185 600 (23.15%) Mozambique borders the Indian Ocean to the east and its climate is generally tropical, although precipitation varies widely from north to south and from the coast to the inland areas. Drought in the southern regions and prolonged civil ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Malawi Map of Malawi
Total Area of Country: 118 484 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 110 700 (93.4%) National Population in 2010: 13.9 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 13 050 000 (96.67%) Malawi is the most densely populated country in the Zambezi Basin. Its diverse physical features support a variety of flora and fauna. Lake Malawi extends over almost two-thirds of the eastern border area and with other water bodies co...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Botswana Map of Botswana
Total Area of Country: 581 730 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 19 100 sq km (3.3 %) National Population in 2010: 1.8 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 13 140 (0.73%) Botswana is a semi-arid landlocked country situated on the central plateau of southern Africa, and encompasses most of the Kgalagadi Desert. The country receives little rainfall, experiences frequent droughts, and imports most food and ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Map of Angola Map of Angola
Total Area of Country: 1 246 700 sq km Portion of Country within Zambezi Basin: 256 500 sq km (20.5%) National Population in 2010: 17.8 million Portion of National Population within Zambezi Basin: 651 480 (03.66%) Although the Zambezi River rises in Zambia, part of its upper course is in northeastern Angola, which is the seventh largest country in Africa by area and has an Atlantic coastline of 1 650 km. The country has distinct and alterna...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin Population distribution in the Zambezi River Basin
Population distribution is uneven in the basin, with large areas uninhabited and reserved for wildlife. In 1998, the average population density in the basin was 24 people per sq km, and this increased to 28.75 people per sq km in 2005 before reaching 30.26 people per sq km in 2008 (Chenje 2000; SARDC and HBS 2010). There are disparities in population densities between countries in the basin, with Malawi being the most densely populated country. I...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin flood areas Zambezi River Basin flood areas
Over the last two decades, the Zambezi River Basin has experienced extreme floods and droughts (SARDC and HBS 2010). Most of the flooding in the basin is associated with active cyclones that develop in the Indian Ocean. The IPCC predicted that tropical cyclones will become more intense, with higher peak wind speeds and heavier precipitation associated with increases in tropical sea surface temperature (IPCC 2009). Major floods were recorded in p...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin wetlands Zambezi River Basin wetlands
Wetlands cover a large area of the Zambezi River Basin. For example, in Zambia the Kafue Flats, Lukanga swamps, Barotse flood plains, Nyambomba swamps, Cuando, Busanga,Luangwa and Luena flats cover an area greater than 2.6 million hectares (SADC and ZRA 2007). These wetlands are used for fisheries, agriculture, wildlife management, and transportation services.  The variations in flooding in areas such as the Zambezi floodplains, East Caprivi ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin vegetation Zambezi River Basin vegetation
Land cover and land use have great impacts on water resources, as they affect how precipitation translates into runoff, infiltration, evaporation, and the quality of the water (Hirji et al. 2002). Almost 75 per cent of the land area in the basin is forest and bush. Cropped land with mostly rain-fed agriculture covers 13 per cent of the land area, and grassland covers about 8 per cent of the land area.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin Zambezi River Basin
The Zambezi River Basin is located between 8–20° S latitude and 16.5–36° E longitude in southern Africa (Chenje 2000). It drains an area of almost 1.4 million square kilometres, stretching across 8 of the 15 member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin average rainfall Zambezi River Basin average rainfall
Average annual rainfall across the river basin varies from 500mm in the extreme south and southwest part of the basin to more than 1 400 mm in the Upper Zambezi and Kabompo sub-basins, in the north-eastern shores of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa in Tanzania, and in the southern border area between Malawi and Mozambique (Chenje 2000). Rainfall is greatest in the north, with an extensive area receiving over 1 000 mm, and declines towards the south, ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities Zambezi River Basin hydropower facilities
The hydropower potential of the Zambezi River Basin is estimated at 20 000 megawatts (MW)of which about 5 000 MW has been developed (Tumbare 2004). More than half of this potential is in Mozambique, about one-quarter in Zambia and one-sixth in Zimbabwe (SADC and ZRA 2007). The Cahora Bassa, Kariba and Kafue Gorge dams provide the bulk of the basin’s hydropower, generating 2 075 MW, 1 470 MW and 990 MW of electricity, respectively (World Bank ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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