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Forest, crops and the people Forest, crops and the people
There are competing demands for land use. Any policy that aims to promote ecosystem carbon management must resolve conflicts between different land uses and take care not to disadvantage the poor.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Marine mammals in the Arctic Marine mammals in the Arctic
Seven species of marine mammals live in the Arctic year-round – the bowhead whale, beluga whale, narwhal, ringed seal, beaded seal, walrus, and polar bear - and many more migrate to the Arctic seasonally. Many marine mammals aggregate in specific areas across the Arctic, for example to feed, or for whelping, pupping or moulting. A common feature of marine mammals in the Arctic is that they are associated with sea ice, although the ecological rela...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost.
13 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map) Arctic, topography and bathymetry (topographic map)
The Arctic represents the northermost area of the World, the Arctic Ocean and the land areas that surrounds it. The region is characterized but cold temperatures, and ice and snow. The summers are short, but with long periods of daylight (midnight sun). The winters are long and cold and with periods with no sun (polar night). The Arctic Ocean is one basin that is mostly covered by sea ice, and is connected to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The ...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
In 2005, per capita emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean, not taking emissions associated with land use changes into account, amounted to 5.5 MtCO2-e, with Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela having the highest levels of per capita emissions. On the other end of the spectrum, Guatemala, El Salvador and Haiti had the lowest emission levels in the region.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change) Share of world greenhouse gas emissions (includes land use change)
The total amount of CO2 emissions, including those associated with land use changes, highlight the contribution of Latin America and the Caribbean to total global emissions of CO2. In total the region contributes to 13% of global emissions when changes in land use is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change)
A strong heterogeneity in the ratio emission to GDP, including the land use change, is observed among the countries of the region. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia stand out because of the importance of emissions related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and energy consumption). In this way, an increase in per capita income is achieved with less energy consumption and reduced emissions (ECLAC, 2009). Examining an energy intensity index by region for 1980-2005, one sees that, in aggregat...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006 Global emissions of carbon dioxide, 2006
The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is highly vulnerable to climate change despite the fact that it contributes relatively little to global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2006 (excluding those associated with land use changes) amounted to 38,754 million of metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2-e), with Mexico and Brazil being the main emitters in the region (WRI, 2010). The importance of Latin Am...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (includes land use change)
Taking into account total CO2 emissions, including those associated with and use changes, the Latin American and Caribbean region rates poorly compared to other regions with regard to emissions of CO2 equivalent per US$ million of GDP produced. Latin America emits 1,152 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million, compared to 481 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million emitted by the OECD countries. This indicates that for each US$ million of G...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change) Emissions per GDP, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Examining CO2 emissions in 2005, excluding those associated with land use changes, it can be seen that the Latin American and Caribbean region has a higher level of emissions per US$ million of GDP (598 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million) than the OECD countries (468 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million), but less than the world average (652 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per US$ 1 million).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change) Greenhouse gas emissions, 2005 (includes land use change)
The disaggregation of emissions by type of gas makes clear the domination of carbon dioxide (CO2), both globally and at the regional level. On a country basis, the five top emitters in the world are China and the United States, followed by Russia and Japan. The fifth top emitter is Brazil, when greenhouse gas emission associated with land use change is taken into account.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Assosciate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land use, forestry, agriculture and energy consumption. Brazil stands out as the highest emitter of greenhouse gasses caused by land use changes, accounting for more than 800,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. The importance of agricul...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (excludes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (excludes land use change)
Evidence at international level shows a positive, although not a linear, relation between GHG emissions and the trajectory of the gross domestic product (GDP). There is a strong heterogeneity in the ratio of emissions to GDP (excluding land use change) among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, with Guyana and Bolivia standing as those countries with the highest levels of emissions per US$ 1 million of GDP produced.
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 Share of greenhouse gas emissions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005
Data on carbon dioxide emissions makes it possible to identify the main emitting countries within Latin America and the Caribbean. Chief among the emitters is Brazil, accounting for 52%, which together with Mexico, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Argentina accounted for 79% of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the region in 2005. While specific percentages (excluding emissions associated with land use changes) vary, these four countr...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090 Projected changes in the Arctic climate, 2090
The averages of the scenarios in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) are presented in this figure, for the year 2090, with the surface temperatures over land, the size of the polar ice cap, and the outer limits of permafrost.
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Threats to coral reefs in Eastern Africa Threats to coral reefs in Eastern Africa
Human land use along coasts and in major river basins can threaten coral reefs through toxic material inputs to coastal ecosystems. This graphic shows the areas of low, medium and high estimated threats to coral reefs on Africa's eastern coast.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda Impact of Temperature Rise on Robusta Coffee in Uganda
Developing countries, whose economies often rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, are especially vulnerable to climate change. This graphic shows that with an increase of only 2 degrees Celsius, there would be a dramatic decrease in the amount of land suitable for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nile Delta: Potential Impact of Sea Level Rise Nile Delta: Potential Impact of Sea Level Rise
The potential impacts of sea level rise on the Nile Delta are expected to include a decline in water quality that would affect freshwater fish, the flooding of agricultural land and damage to infrastructure. This graphic shows the Nile Delta region as it is today (2002), the area as it would appear with a 0.5 m sea level rise, and the area as it would appear with a 1.0 m sea level rise.
17 May 2005 - by Otto Simonett, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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