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Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production Global trends in cereal and meat production; total use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; increased use of irrigation; total global pesticides production
Production gains are attributed to improved crop varieties and livestock, soil management, improved access to resources (nutrients and water), infrastructure developments, policy initiatives, microfinance, education, better communication and advances in market and trade systems. This has also increased the demand and use of irrigation, phosphorus and nitrogen.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers
The graphic shows the development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers. Water resources in Europe have been profoundly influenced over the past century by human activities, including the construction of dams and canals, large irrigation and drainage systems, changes of land cover in most watersheds, high inputs of chemicals from industry and agriculture into surface and groundwater, and depletion of aquifers. Some of the most...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations
The graph shows the development of Nitrate concentration in groundwater from 1980 to 1995 in France, Britain and Denmark combined. Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound and is normal in small amounts, but excess amounts can pollute supplies of groundwater. Nitrate travels through soil contaminated by fertilizers, livestock waste and septic systems, carried by rain or irrigation water into groundwater supplies.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operations in the region paid little attention to the environment and public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Today, not only active industrial facilities constitute a threat to environment, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Water has long been associated with conflicts between neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring Syria and Turkey influence the flow of this water. The graphic shows the locations of main dams, swamps and horticulture in the region. It also shows five of the major ways in which land is used in the region: forest and grazing land; rain-fed agriculture (grains, ve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Aral Sea: trends and scenarios Aral Sea: trends and scenarios
The demise of the Aral Sea was caused primarily by the diversion of the inflowing Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya rivers to provide irrigation water for local croplands. This graphic shows the disappearance of the Aral Sea from 1957 to 2000 and three possible scenarios showing the relationship between future demand (and thus water abstraction) and future available runoff in cubic kilometres per year. The scenarios cover the time period from 2000 to 202...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater, primarily for irrigation of arable land. This graphic shows the relative percentages of water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors in the countries of the world in 2000.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban water cycle Urban water cycle
This graphic illustrates the impact of human activity on groundwater. It shows that groundwater is obtained from periurban wellfields and urban wells, then used and disposed of as wastewater through pluvial drainage, piped sewage and on-site sanitation and industrial effluent disposal. It also shows that wastewater is treated and then reused for irrigation, with excess flows re-entering the aquifers.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Lake Chad - decrease in area 1963, 1973, 1987, 1997 and 2001 Lake Chad - decrease in area 1963, 1973, 1987, 1997 and 2001
Straddling the borders of Nigeria, Chad, Niger and Cameroon in West Africa, Lake Chad has been a source of freshwater for irrigation projects in all these countries. This graphic traces the shrinkage of Lake Chad and changes in vegetation from 1963 to 2001. It includes maps of the lake from 1963, 1973, 1987, 1997 and 2001. Climatic changes and high demands for agricultural water are responsible for the lake's shrinkage.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Kyrgyz Republic, topographic map Kyrgyz Republic, topographic map
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan) is located in Central Asia, west of China, comprising of 198,500 sq km. It has a population of 5,146,281 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land cover changes in desert areas 1700,1900,2000 and 2050 Land cover changes in desert areas 1700,1900,2000 and 2050
The main land use change in desert areas has been the conversion of relatively barren drylands for agricultural needs, partially through irrigation. The conversion has historically primarily been to use the land for grazing, but the 2050 scenario suggests that small areas on the fringes of deserts will be converted to cropland. The model otherwise predicts modest changes for 2050.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nigeria and the freshwater challenge Nigeria and the freshwater challenge
Out of the total precipitation reaching Nigeria, it can be separated into green and blue water. Green water (79% of the precipitation) represents the fraction of rainfall that generates soil moisture and which supports terrestrial ecosystems. It is not returned to groundwater and rivers, but will eventually evaporate or transpire through plants. Blue water, on the other hand, represents the fraction (21%) of the precipitation that runs into river...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Current and potential arable land use in Africa Current and potential arable land use in Africa
Out of the total land area in Africa, only a fraction is used for arable land. Using soil, land cover and climatic characteristics a FAO study has estimated the potential land area for rainfed crops, excluding built up areas and forests – neither of which would be available for agriculture. According to the study, the potential – if realised – would mean an increase ranging from 150 – 700% percent per region, with a total potential for the whole ...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region [Russian] Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region [Russian]
Between 1990 and 2000 the area of cultivated land per capita in the Aral Sea region has dramatically reduced. The predictive models to the year 2020 show the increase demand in irrigation of the region. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region Cultivated Land in Aral Sea Region
Between 1990 and 2000 the area of cultivated land per capita in the Aral Sea region has dramatically reduced. The predictive models to the year 2020 show the increase demand in irrigation of the region.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operations in the region paid little attention to the environment and public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Today, not only active industrial facilities constitute a threat to environment, ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin
Agriculture is a mainstay of Central Asia’s economy. With the economic crisis following independence it has become even more important. Agriculture being almost entirely dependent upon irrigation, access to water is of strategic importance. Two major Tributaries – The Naryn and the Kara-Darya – both originating in Kyrgyzstan, join to form the Syr-Darya, one of the two largest rivers serving the Aral Sea Basin, and the key water resource of the wh...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region
Irrigated land currently produces 40% of the world’s food on 17% of the world’s land. A broadening of irrigation and more effective rain fed agriculture will be necessary to meet the need for increasing agricultural outputs – for domestic use and exports.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water requirements for food production 1960-2050 Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture in developing countries will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger'. To decrease hunger the outputs in agriculture will need to increase, and thus the water use. The data has been calculated for developing countries with minimum set of calories.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water withdrawals in 2050 Water withdrawals in 2050
Current patterns of human use of water are unsustainable. From 5% to possibly 25% of global freshwater use exceeds longterm accessible supplies and is met through engineered water transfers or the overdraft of groundwater supplies (low to medium certainty).
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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