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Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000 Public and private agriculture research and development spending by region, 2000
Investments in agricultural research and development (R&D) are still growing, but the growth rate declined during the 1990s. In addition, investment trends among countries have increasingly diverged. Investment in publicly funded agricultural R&D in many industrialized countries has stalled or declined and has become a small proportion of total spending on science and technology (S&T).
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in the countries of the Balkans, 1990-2004 Energy consumption in the countries of the Balkans, 1990-2004
The region's political and economic instability has discouraged any substantial investment in the energy sector. Except for some places such as Kosovo, the Balkans have no fossil fuel deposits, which are significant power source on a global scale. The Balkan countries are neither big energy producers nor consumers, so the region can rely on renewable energy to cater for tomorrow’s growing electricity demand.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Share of renewable sources, out of energy consumption in the Balkans, 2005 Share of renewable sources, out of energy consumption in the Balkans, 2005
Further development of hydroelectric power will depend on several factors, perhaps the most important being market deregulation. Specific measures are needed to encourage hydroelectric power. One specific measure would be to support new investment in production facilities, this being the best way of meeting environmental challenges and improving the stability of supply.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Trends in Net Trade of Forest Products Trends in Net Trade of Forest Products
The international trade in forest products has undergone considerable changes, due to emerging markets, new investment strategies and diversification in products. In 2004, trade in wood-based forest products accounted for an estimated 3.7 per cent of the world trade in commodities, valued at US$327 billion (FAO 2007).
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France
The area of the squares is proportionate to the annual reduction in emissions in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Displaying main areas of housing investment, daily life and private car investment.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption appeal Consumption appeal
The marketing and advertising industry is constantly teasing us with trendy, cool and largely superfluous products. To judge by investment in advertising, it takes more and more to achieve the same effect. With all that stimulation it is an effort asking just what we stand to gain.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Markets for Caspian oil and gas Markets for Caspian oil and gas
The prospects for rapid oil wealth contrast with fast spreading poverty following the collapse of the Soviet economy. Although massive investment has suddenly been channelled into the area, its effect is still both geographically and socially very limited, with little widespread impact on society.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of food in total household expenses (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan) Share of food in total household expenses (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan)
In all the areas bordering on the Caspian, priority must be given to diversifying activities and investment. Particular attention should be given to sectors such as tourism, agriculture and food production as well as services.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Infant mortality in Eastern Azerbaijan, 2003 Infant mortality in Eastern Azerbaijan, 2003
Public health policies during the Soviet period eliminated several traditional diseases. But for lack of adequate investment in medical equipment and drugs in the 1970s and 1980s they failed to effectively halt a worrying rise in the overall and infant death rate.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population Density in 1990 Population Density in 1990
West Africa has one of the highest levels of poverty in the world. The purpose of the map is to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
07 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty mapping study area Poverty mapping study area
This map represents the study area for the poverty mapping project for West Africa for generation of reliable statistical and cartographic products to communicate the relationship between rural poverty and land use potential in West Africa, in order to provide information to ensure optimal use of research investment.
11 Feb 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Crushed by war and world conflicts Crushed by war and world conflicts
Conflicts increase the risk of food supply instability tremendously (Figure 31). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations tend to be food insecure, with more than 20% of the population, and in many cases far more, lacking access to adequate food (IFPRI, 2006). The group of countries that are experiencing civil conflicts cannot meet their basic needs and are large importers of food. In addition, the transport of commodities is haz...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population increase and water resources Population increase and water resources
The world’s water resources will not change, but the human population and its demands on supply are growing rap- idly. Meeting these demands will require wise investment in how we use and reuse our water (UN Water Statistics).
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wastewater, Health and Human well being - Investing in water supply and sanitation Wastewater, Health and Human well being - Investing in water supply and sanitation
Investment to improve basic access to a safe water source and sanitation (WHO scenario A) can have a significant return with the largest impact on health in particular averting diarrhoea cases and time saved (increasing productivity). Urbanized areas provide a large proportion of GDP, therefore the future development of developing countries is dependent on the productivity of growing urban areas.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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