The composition and levels of wealth per capita for low-income countries
In low-income countries, the natural section represents a quarter of the total wealth, this represents the land that is managed either by household, individual or communally, and the potential for generating income. Physical capital, represents a much smaller share as people will have less potential, compared to higher income countries, to acquire equipment, structures and infrastructure.
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography
Eastern Europe extends from the northern shore of the Black Sea in Ukraine up to the Baltic Sea basin in Belarus. It covers 845,000 square kilometers and is home to almost 60 million people. These nations share common borders, watersheds, and infrastructure and have many similarities in their geography, history, culture and economy.
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Direct measurements of greenhouse gases emissions are not possible. Assessments are therefore using precise theoretical calculations for each sectors. They are called “emission factors” and are regularly updated.
Trying to quantify emissions related to a given activity requires consideration of complete life-cycles. That means counting emissions from all related activities, raw materials, transformed products and necessary infrastructure (indi...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the depth of cooperation. Measuring the level of conflict between governments over water is inherently difficult as water is seldom a stand-alone foreign policy issue. Oregon State University has attempted to compile data covering every r...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Water storage capacity for selected countries
Cross-country water storage comparisons provide insights into one aspect of risk mitigation capacity. However, storage capacity is only one guide to the linkage between infrastructure and vulnerability. Countries such as Ghana and Zambia have very high levels of water storage per capita - higher, in fact, than the United States - but a limited capacity to mitigate risk. Most of the storage capacity is geared towards power generation, with a very ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Mean annual coastal erosion in arctic Alaska (Beaufort Sea shoreline)
In the Arctic, impacts of climate change will include
increased coastal erosion. For Arctic human
communities impacts are projected to be mixed, with
detrimental impacts expected on infrastructure and
traditional indigenous ways of life in these regions. Food
security for some subsistence systems will be threatened through changes in natural ecosystems.
03 Feb 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Slum population in urban Africa
One of the major challenges of urbanisation in Africa is the rapid expansion of areas of informal settlements. These slum areas tend to lack infrastructure such as pipe-borne water and sewerage, and services such as garbage collection and waste management are often non-existent.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater resources. The negative environmental impacts of the shipping industry also harm the coastal ecosystem. Impacts from shipping include oil spills and the discharge of ballast water and waste into the sea, which affect the quality of...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal