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Changes in economic structure for selected countries Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as a result of the ongoing transition from agricultural to industrial and service economies.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001 Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001
Fishing production dramatically increase through the century peaking in late 1980s. At this time there were major declines in several fish populations in different areas of the world. The catch reported by governments is in some cases adjusted to correct for likely errors in data.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003 Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050 Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050
The range of the natural rate of bacterial nitrogen fixation in natural terrestrial ecosystems (excluding fixation in agroecosystems) is shown for comparison. Human activity now produces approximately as much reactive nitrogen as natural processes do on the continents.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Changes in forest area Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of biomass energy.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004 Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004
Overall, agriculture (cropping and livestock) contributes 13.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions mostly through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide (about 47% and 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively). The largest producer is power generation at 25.9% followed by industry with 19.4%.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
World's top seed companies World's top seed companies
The top ten seed companies have incomes at over $10 billion USD. Monsanto and Dupont/Pioneer lead the way with over 50% of seed sales in the world. All of the top ten companies are located in the U.S.A, Japan or Europe.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus region is important in terms of heavy industry. Being rich with natural mineral resources, extraction industry is playing an important role in the overall economic development. However, concerns related to unsustainable mining practices increasingly worries the public. Within the Southern Caucasus, Armenia displays the greatest number of mine sites and identified mineral deposits. Within Armenia, the mining industry is concentrated i...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route by between two and four months. Previously frozen areas in the Arctic may therefore become seasonally or permanently navigable, increasing the prospects for marine transport through the Arctic and providing greater access to Arcti...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Industrial development in the Arctic Industrial development in the Arctic
Industrial development in the Arctic. The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the areas of chief interest at the moment. Please note that the shipping routes in Northern Canada are not open today for commercial shipping because of sea ice. The Northern Sea Route north of Russia is partly open today.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Traditional practices, infrastructure and development Traditional practices, infrastructure and development
Indigneous peoples have lived in Arctic for thousands of years, and continue to depend upon the natural resources of the region today. Their traditional subsistence practices include hunting, trapping, fishing and reindeer herding. All of which are conducted in a sustainable manner; that is, in a way that does not lead to long-term or large-scale degredation of the environment. However, the balance they have achieved with the environment through...
21 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Environment and security issues in Ukraine Environment and security issues in Ukraine
Compared to its neighbours, Ukraine has a very low Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (ranking 108 out of 146 countries; Esty et al. 2005). This is primarily due to the high energy and pollution-intensity of its industry, pressure on ecosystems due to intensive agriculture, water stress on part of its territory, and insufficiently developed environmental institutions.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities
Even though the nuclear industry does not significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, it is a disputable alternative to fossil fuels. In the former USSR people and the environment still have to cope with the nuclear industry’s legacy.
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate Change Performance Index 2008 Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A country’s current emissions level (CO2 emitted per primary energy unit, primary energy unit per GDP, primary energy unit per capita) is given a 30 % weight in the overall evaluation; *Climate policy (national and international) weighs ...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater use by sector at the beginning of the 2000s Freshwater use by sector at the beginning of the 2000s
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater. Analysis indicates that: - In the United States, agriculture accounts for some 49% of total freshwater use, with 80% of this volume being used for irrigation (Shiklomanov, 1999). - In Africa and Asia, an estimated 85-90% of all freshwater used is for agriculture (Shiklomanov, 1999). - According to estimates for the year 2000, agriculture accounted for 67% of the world’s total fr...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
4
Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, providing a significant proportion of the GDPs of many developing countries. Small island states are particularly reliant on coastal and marine tourism. In the Caribbean, for example, the industry accounts for a quarter of the total eco...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
3
Pressures on the South African coast Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater resources. The negative environmental impacts of the shipping industry also harm the coastal ecosystem. Impacts from shipping include oil spills and the discharge of ballast water and waste into the sea, which affect the quality of...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem
Net present value (NPV) is in millions of USD over a 30-year period (2000-2030) at a 4% discount rate. The NPV for local communities under a deforestation scenario would be 3,132 million USD and under a conservation scenario 5,341 million USD. The analysis shows that the local community would benefit most from a scenario under which the forest is conserved, negative effects on ecosystem services are avoided and payments for ecosystem services ar...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Mining exploration Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Batang and iron ore mining in the Alas valley, and planned development of coal mining in the hill forests inland of the Tripa swamps.
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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