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Tag: Industry

Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Estimated global marine fish catch, 1950 -2001
Fishing production dramatically increase through the century peaking in late 1980s. At this time there were major declines in several fish populations in different areas of the world. The catch reported by governments is...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) average annual growth, 1990–2003
Average annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita at market prices based on constant local currency. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 1995 official exchange rates. GDP is the sum ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Reactive nitrogen on earth by human activity, with projection to 2050
The range of the natural rate of bacterial nitrogen fixation in natural terrestrial ecosystems (excluding fixation in agroecosystems) is shown for comparison. Human activity now produces approximately as much reactive ni...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by source, 2004
Overall, agriculture (cropping and livestock) contributes 13.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions mostly through emissions of methane and nitrous oxide (about 47% and 58% of total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's top seed companies
The top ten seed companies have incomes at over $10 billion USD. Monsanto and Dupont/Pioneer lead the way with over 50% of seed sales in the world. All of the top ten companies are located in the U.S.A, Japan or Europe.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Heavy industry in the Caucasus ecoregion
The Caucasus region is important in terms of heavy industry. Being rich with natural mineral resources, extraction industry is playing an important role in the overall economic development. However, concerns related to u...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes
Climate models project that summer sea ice in the Arctic Basin will retreat further and further away from most Arctic landmasses, opening new shipping routes and extending the navigation season in the Northern Sea Route ...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Industrial development in the Arctic
Industrial development in the Arctic. The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Traditional practices, infrastructure and development
Indigneous peoples have lived in Arctic for thousands of years, and continue to depend upon the natural resources of the region today. Their traditional subsistence practices include hunting, trapping, fishing and reinde...
21 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Environment and security issues in Ukraine
Compared to its neighbours, Ukraine has a very low Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (ranking 108 out of 146 countries; Esty et al. 2005). This is primarily due to the high energy and pollution-intensity of its in...
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities
Even though the nuclear industry does not significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, it is a disputable alternative to fossil fuels. In the former USSR people and the environment still have to cope with the ...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A countr...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Freshwater use by sector at the beginning of the 2000s
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater. Analysis indicates that: - In the United States, agriculture accounts for some 49% of total freshwater use, with 80% of this volume being used for irriga...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, provid...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater r...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Distribution of benefits under different land use scenarios in the Leuser Ecosystem
Net present value (NPV) is in millions of USD over a 30-year period (2000-2030) at a 4% discount rate. The NPV for local communities under a deforestation scenario would be 3,132 million USD and under a conservation scen...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Mining exploration
The mining industry is a potential threat to Sumatran orangutan habitat in a number of important areas, both directly by its own activities and indirectly by road access. It includes a major gold mine near the town of Ba...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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