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Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operations in the region paid little attention to the environment and public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Today, not only active industrial facilities constitute a threat to environment, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Waste generation from manufacturing industry (by sectors) Waste generation from manufacturing industry (by sectors)
Turning raw materials into consumer products generates waste - depending on the technology used, the nature of the raw material processed and how much of it is discarded at the end of the chain. Very often manufacturing wastes end up in the hazardous category. (please note that the Italy figure is not consistent with the source reference, and is erroneous)
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment
Contaminated groundwater can adversely affect animals, plants and humans if it is removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. Depending on the geology of the area, groundwater may rise to the surface through springs or seeps, fl ow laterally into nearby rivers, streams, or ponds, or sink deeper into the earth. In many parts of the world, groundwater is pumped out of the ground to be used for drinking, bathing, other household uses, a...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Species diversity in the world's seas Species diversity in the world's seas
The graphic compares the amount of diversity of marine mammals, sharks, molluscs, birds, shrimp and lobsters in various sea regions. Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse of all natural ecosystems. Recent decades have been catastrophic for them, however; some 10% of the world’s reefs may already have been degraded beyond recovery, and another 30% are in decline. Meanwhile biologically rich coastal wetlands, including mangrove fore...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Long range transport of air pollutants to the Arctic Long range transport of air pollutants to the Arctic
The major industrial areas of the Northern Hemisphere are a source for long range transport of pollutants. The main air currents are taking industrial air pollution and circulating them with the end result being an increase of pollutants in the biosphere of the Arctic.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total energy supply in 1995 Total energy supply in 1995
Total primary energy supply per capita is a common, albeit an imperfect measure of energy efficiency in a country. For instance, neither the impact of climate on energy use (heating, cooling) nor the size of the country and the density of the population are properly taken into account when comparing countries. Energy analysts usually prefer to compare energy use per unit of output or per unit of GDP. However, the ratio has been presented here sin...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use change CO2 emissions from industrial processes and land use change
2 thematical maps: (1) CO2 emissions from industrial processes (http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/09.htm): This map depicts the unequal distribution of industry in the world. The significant part of carbon dioxide emissions comes from energy production, industrial processes and transport. The industrialised countries consequently must bear the main responsibility of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide. (2): CO2 emissions from land use change.(...
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income) Status on cost of establishing a business (compared to per capita income)
Bureaucracy and administration by local and national government can present a stumbling block for establishing businesses - in particular for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Removing and simplifying these procedures increases the possibilities - in particular for the rural population.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use Freshwater withdrawal in agriculture, industry and domestic use
The agricultural sector is by far the biggest user of freshwater, primarily for irrigation of arable land. This graphic shows the relative percentages of water use by the agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors in the countries of the world in 2000.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The boom in shipping trade The boom in shipping trade
'(the shipping industry) now carries more than 90% of the world's trade by volume, and has tripled its tonnage since 1970'
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Largest industrial CO2 emitters Largest industrial CO2 emitters
Facilities emitting more than 100 000 tones of CO2 each year from power plants, cement factories, refineries, gas processing plants, ammonia chemical industry, hydrogen chemical industry, ethylene chemical industry, ethylene oxide chemical industry, iron and steel manufacturing, ethanol chemical industry and other industrial facility.
04 Jun 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of CO2 Norwegian emissions of CO2
Emissions of carbon dioxide in Norway, 1985-1997, with projections up to 2010 (with a current measures scenario, as of 1997). Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the main agent of greenhouse gases that is released primarily from the burning of fossil fuels, in cars, industry and homes.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions of SF6 in Norway, 85-96 Emissions of SF6 in Norway, 85-96
The graph shows emissions of SF6 in Norway from 1985 to 1996.SF6 is a highly potent greenhouse gas used in the industry for insulation in high voltage equipment and current interruption in electric transmission and distribution equipment.
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions from industry CO2 emissions from industry
This map depicts the unequal distribution of industry in the world. The significant part of carbon dioxide emissions comes from energy production, industrial processes and transport. The industrialised countries consequently must bear the main responsibility of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Packaging waste production per capita in Europe Packaging waste production per capita in Europe
The manufacture of packaging itself generates waste and by defi nition it has a particularly short lifespan. It turns into waste as soon as its contents reaches its destination. This is certainly a blessing for the packaging sector – and the related plastics, paper and printing industries – but it presents a serious challenge for waste management.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Typical hazardous wastes generated by selected manufacturing industries Typical hazardous wastes generated by selected manufacturing industries
Industry is the top producer of waste in developed countries. A large proportion of industrial waste is hazardous, because industrial processes often involve chemicals. Cleaner production – reducing the amount of problematic components in a product and additives used in the production process – waste avoidance and a life cycle approach to waste management are attempts in the right direction.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Waste at every stage Waste at every stage
The squares are proportionnal to the estimated amounts of waste generated by sector in 2002, in the OECD countries (in million tonnes). Waste is produced from the very beginning of the life cycle of a product, long before we as consumers are aware of it.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Recycling Rates for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Recycling Rates for Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries
Reusing and recycling are natural survival strategies for many people in the developing world. In rich countries we abandoned the habit and are now relearning how to reuse and recycle. Public rubbish collection and a well established recycling industry do a big part of the job for us.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Consumption appeal Consumption appeal
The marketing and advertising industry is constantly teasing us with trendy, cool and largely superfluous products. To judge by investment in advertising, it takes more and more to achieve the same effect. With all that stimulation it is an effort asking just what we stand to gain.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Consumer items in China Consumer items in China
The impact of income on lifestyle is apparent in China like elsewhere. There has been a massive surge in all consumer goods with rising income in towns. The same trend can be observed to a much lesser extent in the country.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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