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Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Biochemical oxygen demand is an indicator of the organic pollution of freshwater. Alkalinity (concentration of calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is another indicator of freshwater quality. These graphics compare the concentrations of these two factors, in milligrams per litre, in the major regions of the world for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1991 to 2000. The accompanying text explains the implications of the changes in BOD and alkalinity during these...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education
In increasing living standards, sustainability and livelihoods and eliminating poverty, gender equality and education are seen as some of the main means. This is further recognized in the Millennium Development Goals, as goal 3: 'Promote gender equality and empower women'. This map illustrates one of the indicators for indicator 9 (target 4) under this goal, and the Millennium Project assesses the current progress in reaching the goal as good for...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Infant mortality in the Caspian Sea region Infant mortality in the Caspian Sea region
Even if over the last two decades, or perhaps longer, the fertility rate has dropped significantly, the authorities nevertheless have to cope with all the health, education and employment problems associated with a rapidly rising, youthful population. Infant mortality is still a serious issue in the region and an important indicator on the overall status of the health care system.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human Development Indicators by Accessibility Index Human Development Indicators by Accessibility Index
A Series of charts of Human Development Indicators based on accessibility levels in West Africa. Data was only available for 2 countries, all situated in the more arid part of West Africa. The common-sense logic ‘ the more accessible the more developed’ seems to be confirmed through the life expectancy indicator (children that died before the age of 5).
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia
With spectacular mountain peak glaciers melting away, the NEvado de Santa Isabel area in Colombia becomes less attractive to tourists. In addition, the local forestry and agricultural fertility suffer may suffer from reduced spring water. The retreat of glaciers is an indicator for changes in regional and global climate.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solar insolation Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This map presents solar insolation in Europe and neighboring countries, calculated to annual averages from monthly averages 1983 - 1993.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the same time increased the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases, and scientists have been able to connect human activities ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Vegetation density/distribution in the high Arctic Vegetation density/distribution in the high Arctic
The current vegetation density and distribution in the high Arctic can be calculated using satellite images. The vegetation index, 'greenness' (NDVI) represents a benchmark of the presence and ratio of photosynthesis. In monitoring the vegetation, scientists can keep an eye on the situation and use the index as an indicator of climate change - increased temperatures would enable the forest and tundra to move further north.
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies
The red knot, Calidris canutus, is an example of a longdistance migratory shorebird. It has been the subject of extensive research worldwide including studies on its breeding cycle, winter ecology, and stopover sites. It is a typical representative of high Arctic shorebirds and is, therefore, a good indicator species for the whole group. As one of nature’s most prodigious travelers, it excites the interest of wildlife enthusiasts, scientists, and...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic
Infant mortality, a common health and human livelihoods indicator, is generally higher among indigenous peoples than the average populations, and can be used as a general indicator on the level of health. This graphic shows the infant mortality rate in selected regions of the Arctic and compares them to the national averages.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The Living Planet Index measures trends in the abundance of species for which data is available The Living Planet Index measures trends in the abundance of species for which data is available
This indicator has been adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity to measure progress towards the 2010 target
28 Mar 2006 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water - cooperation or conflict? Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the depth of cooperation. Measuring the level of conflict between governments over water is inherently difficult as water is seldom a stand-alone foreign policy issue. Oregon State University has attempted to compile data covering every r...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Level of river fragmentation and flow regulation Level of river fragmentation and flow regulation
River fragmentation - The interruption of a river’s natural flow by dams, inter-basin transfers or water withdrawal - is an indicator of the degree to which rivers have been modified by man (Ward and Stanford, 1989, and Dynesius and Nilsson, 1994, as cited in Revenga et al., 2000). A fragmentation analysis carried out by the University of Umea and the World Resources Institute showed that, of 227 rivers assessed, 37% were strongly affected by fra...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), March 2006
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Dependency ratio in renewable water Dependency ratio in renewable water
The dependency ratio is a good indicator of where tension and conflict over water-sharing and use can occur. The map clearly depicts such areas including central Asia, the Middle East (especially Syria and Iraq), India and Pakistan, and surprisingly, low land countries such as the Netherlands.
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Biological oxygen demand - BOD: 1976-2008 Biological oxygen demand - BOD: 1976-2008
The availability of oxygen is one of the most important indicators of the condition of a water body, because dissolved oxygen, or DO, (the amount of oxygen dissolved in water) is necessary for most aquatic organisms, including fish and invertebrates. Some species have very defined lower limits of DO that they can tolerate. Increases in DO can indicate improvements in water quality, such as has occurred in many parts of the world in the last 30 ye...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
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Renewable surface water produced internally Renewable surface water produced internally
It is difficult to determine the amount of renewable water produced internally from the total renewable water resources (external and internal). However the FAO gives a rather precise definition of this indicator. Internal Renewable Water Resources (IRWR) includes: - Average precipitation: long-term double average over space and time of the precipitation falling on the country in a year. - Surface water produced internally: long-term average an...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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