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River fragmentation and flow regulation
This graphic shows the number of new dams that were under construction in 1998. It also indicates the areas which are most affected by river channel fragmentation and flow regulation. River fragmentation is defined as th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Regional trends in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Biochemical oxygen demand is an indicator of the organic pollution of freshwater. Alkalinity (concentration of calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is another indicator of freshwater quality. These graphics compare the concentrat...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Gender equality and empowerment of women: eliminate differences in education
In increasing living standards, sustainability and livelihoods and eliminating poverty, gender equality and education are seen as some of the main means. This is further recognized in the Millennium Development Goals, as...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Infant mortality in the Caspian Sea region
Even if over the last two decades, or perhaps longer, the fertility rate has dropped significantly, the authorities nevertheless have to cope with all the health, education and employment problems associated with a rapid...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Human Development Indicators by Accessibility Index
A Series of charts of Human Development Indicators based on accessibility levels in West Africa. Data was only available for 2 countries, all situated in the more arid part of West Africa. The common-sense logic ‘ the mo...
04 Oct 2005 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia
With spectacular mountain peak glaciers melting away, the NEvado de Santa Isabel area in Colombia becomes less attractive to tourists. In addition, the local forestry and agricultural fertility suffer may suffer from red...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This map presents solar insolation in Europe and neighboring countries, calcu...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Vegetation density/distribution in the high Arctic
The current vegetation density and distribution in the high Arctic can be calculated using satellite images. The vegetation index, 'greenness' (NDVI) represents a benchmark of the presence and ratio of photosynthesis. In...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Red Knot, distribution, breeding areas and migratory routes, by subspecies
The red knot, Calidris canutus, is an example of a longdistance migratory shorebird. It has been the subject of extensive research worldwide including studies on its breeding cycle, winter ecology, and stopover sites. It...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic
Infant mortality, a common health and human livelihoods indicator, is generally higher among indigenous peoples than the average populations, and can be used as a general indicator on the level of health. This graphic sh...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The Living Planet Index measures trends in the abundance of species for which data is available
This indicator has been adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity to measure progress towards the 2010 target
28 Mar 2006 - by and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water - cooperation or conflict?
History shows that conflicts over water often emerge and give rise to political tensions, but that most disputes are resolved peacefully. However, the absence of conflict is, at best, only a partial indicator of the dept...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Level of river fragmentation and flow regulation
River fragmentation - The interruption of a river’s natural flow by dams, inter-basin transfers or water withdrawal - is an indicator of the degree to which rivers have been modified by man (Ward and Stanford, 1989, and ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), March 2006
Dependency ratio in renewable water
The dependency ratio is a good indicator of where tension and conflict over water-sharing and use can occur. The map clearly depicts such areas including central Asia, the Middle East (especially Syria and Iraq), India a...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Biological oxygen demand - BOD: 1976-2008
The availability of oxygen is one of the most important indicators of the condition of a water body, because dissolved oxygen, or DO, (the amount of oxygen dissolved in water) is necessary for most aquatic organisms, inc...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Renewable surface water produced internally
It is difficult to determine the amount of renewable water produced internally from the total renewable water resources (external and internal). However the FAO gives a rather precise definition of this indicator. Intern...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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