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Ratio of existing ski areas in the Alps with natural snow-reliability under current conditions and warmer conditions Ratio of existing ski areas in the Alps with natural snow-reliability under current conditions and warmer conditions
Winter tourism is a significant part of the economy of Alpine countries and the most important source of income in many regions. In Austria, winter tourism revenue makes up 4.5 per cent of GNP and half of the total income from tourism. Much of winter tourism is based around the ski industry, which is dependent on reliable snow conditions. Although snow fall is expected to increase at high elevations, it is winter temperatures that largely determi...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty and unemployment in New York City Poverty and unemployment in New York City
The United States Census Bureau sets the poverty thresholds according to money income before taxes, excluding capital gains and noncash benefits, family size and number of children under 18 years old. These thresholds were developed by the Social Security Administration (SSA) in 1964, then revised by interagency committees (1969, 1981). They are adjusted each year using the annual average Consumer Price Index (CPI). For example, a single person u...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in economic structure for selected countries Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as a result of the ongoing transition from agricultural to industrial and service economies.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poorest countries lose income under all Doha scenarios Poorest countries lose income under all Doha scenarios
There are major distributional impacts among countries and within countries that in many cases have not been favorable for small-scale farmers and rural livelihoods. The poorest developing countries are net losers under most trade liberalization scenarios.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total agricultural output Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numerous countries. World cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 with average yields per hectare increasing around 150% in many high and low income countries, with the exception of most nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
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Women quantify lack of control over work resources Women quantify lack of control over work resources
Poor rural infrastructure such as the lack of clean water supply, electricity or fuel increases women’s work load and limits their availability for professional training, childcare and income generation. The lack of access to storage facilities and roads contributes to high food costs and low selling prices.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000 Total public agricultural research expenditures by region, 1981-2000
During a 20 year period between 1981 to 2000 the amount of agricultural research by developing nations has outgrown those of higher income countries. The increase has been steady throughout the entire period as it is in the Asia Pacific region.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources - agricultural potential Natural resources - agricultural potential
Soils underpin the production of a wide range of agricultural and industrial goods and services. Soil productivity is essential to agricultural activities - for food security, cash income and supporting the livelihoods of the poor. Agriculture is the major engine of economic growth in a majority of developing countries – for instance low income developing countries have a high share of agriculture in gross domestic product. This map presents a ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources path to poverty reduction - diagramme Natural resources path to poverty reduction - diagramme
The rural poor of the World, and the poor countries that they live in, do not have much in monetary wealth - but natural resources represents a possible source of income. With the right support, on both the national level as well as from the international community, the economical growth generated from these resources can alleviate poverty sustainably.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The economy of legal wildlife trade The economy of legal wildlife trade
The trade in wild species can contribute significantly to rural incomes, and the effect upon local economies can be substantial. The high value of wildlife products and derivatives can also provide positive economic incentives to provide an alternative to other land use options for the local people - to protect wild species and their habitats, and to maintain the resource for sustainable and profitable use in the medium and long term. Consequent...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Financial flows for developing countries Financial flows for developing countries
With increased globalization and a smaller world, money flows more easily and the flows have increased. Where aid once represented a majority of the funds from high income countries to developing countries, this has now been surpassed by investments and worker’s remittances, and these flows show no sign of slowing down – maybe pausing for an occasional downturn in the global economy. The question is when this will start show as a significant decr...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Money talks for turtles - conservation and economy Money talks for turtles - conservation and economy
Marine turtles have been used for eggs, meat, shell, oil, leather or other products for 7000 years. Modern times have introduced another way for society to profit from these species - to generate economic income as a tourism attraction. Sound turtle management relies on local communities, which – as economic incentive - should receive a fair share of the revenues. In many cases, the bulk of the revenues from the local level end up elsewhere, eve...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - solar power (potential) Natural resource - solar power (potential)
More than two billion people cannot access affordable energy services today. They depend on inefficient locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung. Because convenient, affordable energy can contribute to a household’s productivity and income generating potential, its availability can help families and communities break out of the cycle of poverty. At the same time it also provides gro...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) Forests working for the global climate - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD)
Carbon trading of credits from avoided deforestation could yield billions of dollars for tropical countries, according to an analysis by Rhett A.Butler, founder and editor from mongabay.com, a leading tropical forest web site. The proposed mechanism - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries (REDD) - will enable these countries to maintain their forests as a global resource. Using conservative estimates on carbon storage in ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests) World map of forest distribution (Natural resources - forests)
Approximately 240 million of the world's poor that live in forested areas of developing countries depend on forests for their livelihoods. Forest and its products provide cash income, jobs, and consumption goods for poor families. Forestry provides formal and informal employment for an estimated 40-60 million people. The sector contributes in some developing countries more than eight per cent to GDP. Timber may be the most important forest produc...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off) Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off)
Freshwater – a natural resource which has been adopted as a human right by the UN in 2002: 'the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient; affordable; physically accessible; safe and acceptable water for personal and domestic uses'. People depend on this resource for drinking and cooking, for irrigation of farms, for hygiene and sanitation and for power generation. The map presenting this resource only focuses on one part of the geogra...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003 Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003
In 1970s and 1980s - years of environmental crisis, there were few trees remaining in Niger. Wind-blown sands razed farmers' young crops and they often had to plant crops three times to succeed. Since the middle of the 1980s in the most densely populated parts of Niger farmers have begun to protect and manage young trees and bushes regenerating on their cultivated fields. This is natural farmer-managed forest regeneration. Some trees fix nitrogen...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Country income groups (World Bank classification) Country income groups (World Bank classification)
There are huge regional differences in the above trends. Globally, poverty rates have fallen from 52% in 1981 to 42% in 1990 and to 26% in 2005. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, the poverty rate remained constant at around 50%. This region also comprises the majority of countries making the least progress in reducing child malnutrition. The poverty rate in East Asia fell from nearly 80% in 1980 to under 20% by 2005. East Asia, notably China,...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980 Energy intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and energy consumption). In this way, an increase in per capita income is achieved with less energy consumption and reduced emissions (ECLAC, 2009). Examining an energy intensity index by region for 1980-2005, one sees that, in aggregat...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Economic output and external debt in the Southern Caucasus Economic output and external debt in the Southern Caucasus
Peacefully resolving the overriding political, economic and social concerns of our time requires a multifaceted approach, including mechanisms to address the links between the natural environment and human security. UNDP, UNEP, OSCE and NATO have joined forces in the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative to offer countries their combined pool of expertise and resources towards that aim. ENVSEC assessment of environment and security linkag...
09 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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