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Tag: History

Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature, on a geological and recent time scale
The most recent geological history, in the last hundred thousand years, has been characterised by cycles of glaciations, or ice ages. The historic temperatures, through these times, have been low, and continental ice she...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Political history of the Balkan region
The west Balkans and the Black Sea region are characterized by numerous common risks and challenges, including fragile statehood, a shared history of violent conflict, unconsolidated democratization and economic underdev...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
The Bor copper mines
Southeast Europe, as we have seen, has a long history of mining base and precious metals, reaching back to the fifth century BC at least. In Serbia, for example, archaeological exploration of the Bor site suggests that c...
30 Nov 2007 - by Unknown
Population groups in the Balkan region and Eastern Europe
The wars in former Yugoslavia sped up the process of ethnic homogenization in the west Balkans since modern states started to take form in the 19th century. In Croatia, for instance, the proportion of Serbs in the overal...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Le Monde Diplomatique and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography
Eastern Europe extends from the northern shore of the Black Sea in Ukraine up to the Baltic Sea basin in Belarus. It covers 845,000 square kilometers and is home to almost 60 million people. These nations share common bo...
04 Oct 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
A history of waste management
A visual timeline of historical waste manaement. From the first recorded landfill created in Knossos in 3000 B.C. to the English parliament banning waste disposal in public waterways and ditches in 1388 to the establishm...
15 Dec 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio, Emmanuelle Bournay
Kyoto protocol, timeline and history
The Kyoto Protocol In 1997 world leaders adopted the Kyoto Protocol requiring rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, calculated as an average over the period 2008-2012. Unde...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Metal production in the South Kyrgyz mines of the Ferghana Valley
In the soviet period the industrial operations paid little attention to environment or public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Because of their vulnerability to natural hazard...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Temperatures over previous centuries from various proxy records
Evidence from tree rings and other temperature proxies suggests that during the previous 500 years global temperatures were 1.0ºC cooler than those of the 20th century during a period roughly from 1300 to 1870 – known as...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in Arctic temperature, 1880-2006
A history of Arctic land temperature anomalies from 1880 through 2006 is shown in this figure. The zero line represents the average temperature for 1961–1990. In the late 1800s the Arctic was relatively cold, although t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Ice avalanches of the Nevados Huascarán in Peru
Many disasters have been recorded from the glaciers in the Cordillera Blanca. The 1962 and 1970 events originating from Glaciar 511 on the Nevados Huascarán, the highest peak of which is at 6768 m above sea level in the ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
The ozone international awakening timeline
A record of major events in the history of producing ozone depleting substances (ODS), the discoveries of the harmful process and the steps made to combat the problem from 1879 to 2006, with predictions to 2070 as the da...
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Species extinction rates
Comparisons with the rate at which species have disappeared from the planet over a long period of Earth’s history indicate that humans have already increased extinctions levels dramatically. Projections suggest that this...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Historical trends in carbon dioxide concentrations and temperature
The more recent history, from the middle ages and up until now, show increasing temperatures, rising as the world emerged from the Little Ice Age (LIA), around 1850. With the industrial era, human activities have at the ...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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