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Total agricultural output Total agricultural output
Substantial gains in agricultural productivity over the past 50 years have reduced rates of hunger and malnutrition, improved the health and livelihoods of many millions of people and stimulated economic growth in numerous countries. World cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 with average yields per hectare increasing around 150% in many high and low income countries, with the exception of most nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Are
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World poverty distribution World poverty distribution
Three-quarters of all poor people still live in rural areas. They are heavily reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods: soil, water, forests and fisheries underpin commercial and subsistence activities and often provide a safety net to the poor in times of crises. These natural resources which are abundant in many developing countries - represent an important asset and potential wealth for poor people and their communities. As many of t...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080 Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080
Water is essential not only to survival but is also equally or even more important than nutrients in food production. Agriculture accounts for nearly 70% of the water consumption, with some estimates as high as 85% (Hanasaki et al., 2008a,b). Water scarcity will affect over 1.8 billion people by 2025 (WHO, 2007). This could have major impacts on health, particularly in rural areas, and thus also major impacts on farmer productivity. Althoug...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wastewater, a global problem with differing regional issues Wastewater, a global problem with differing regional issues
The significance of wastewater and contents of wastewater vary greatly between and even within regions. In Africa for example, it is the impact on people’s health that is the major factor, in Europe, the input of nutrients into the coastal waters reducing productivity and creating anoxic dead zones.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Seal catches in the Arctic Seal catches in the Arctic
Large-scale commercial harvests are restricted to harp and hooded seals, except for the hooded seal population in the Jan Mayen area of the Greenland Sea. Both species faced intense commercial hunting in the 19th and 20th centuries, first for oil, and later mainly for the highly prized pelts of pups.Seal products nowadays also include a significant aphrodisiac trade (particularly for harp seal sex organs), and seal oil has become a popular health...
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000 Estimated deaths attributable to climate change, 2000
The extent to which mortality is attributable to climate change remains a matter of intense debate. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2000 indicate that, in Latin America and the Caribbean, there were between 2 and 40 deaths per million inhabitants from floods, malaria and diarrhoea. In terms of regions, the most severe health effects have been in Africa, though significant effects are also being felt in Latin America and in certa...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic
Infant mortality, a common health and human livelihoods indicator, is generally higher among indigenous peoples than the average populations, and can be used as a general indicator on the level of health. This graphic shows the infant mortality rate in selected regions of the Arctic and compares them to the national averages.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The spread of cholera 1950-2004 The spread of cholera 1950-2004
Increasing floods in between dry periods represent ideal conditions for spreading diseases such as cholera. In Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania located in the desert, precipitations - when they occur - are always accompanied by a cholera epidemic, especially in poor areas where waste matter is not managed. Cholera had almost disappeared globally by the mid 1950s, but it reappeared and spread throughout the world during the last few decades. ...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
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Vulnerabilities Vulnerabilities
Health impacts due to ultraviolet radiation
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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UV Index Worldmap UV Index Worldmap
The Global Solar UV Index (UVI) is a simple measurement of the UV radiation level at the Earth's surface. It has been designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect themselves. The higher the Index value, the greater the potential for damage to the skin and eye, and the less time it takes for harm to occur. In countries close to the equator, the UVI can be as much as 20. Summertime values in nort...
02 Nov 2009 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Access to water in urban Africa Access to water in urban Africa
Improved water sources, defined as “one that is protected from outside contamination” (WHO/UNICEF 2010), is essential for ensuring the health of Africa’s urban dwellers. Although an increasing number of people have access to improved water, rapid urban population growth in the African region has equally increased the number of people without proper access.
18 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pressures on the South African coast Pressures on the South African coast
Population growth puts pressure on coastal ecosystems. Increased population means growing demand for land for housing and infrastructure, increased use of living resources for food, and more use of available freshwater resources. The negative environmental impacts of the shipping industry also harm the coastal ecosystem. Impacts from shipping include oil spills and the discharge of ballast water and waste into the sea, which affect the quality of...
21 Jun 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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