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Water issues in the Ferghana Valley
Water is a basic production resource for agriculture. Competition for scarce water resources has been recognized as a potential source of international conflict. In the case of the Ferghana Valley, despite the very local...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Annual snowfall pattern for a typical mountain environment, Columbine Pass, Colorado 1971-2000
Mountain snow cover typically develops in the autumn and grows to a maximum depth in early spring. As day length and sun angles increase, so do air temperatures, causing snow cover to warm and begin to melt. Snow cover ...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Water withdrawals in 2050
Current patterns of human use of water are unsustainable. From 5% to possibly 25% of global freshwater use exceeds longterm accessible supplies and is met through engineered water transfers or the overdraft of groundwate...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Unsustainable water withdrawals for irrigation
The imbalance in long-term water budgets necessitates diversion of surface water or the tapping of groundwater resources. The areas shown with moderate-to-high levels of unsustainable use occur over each continent and ar...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural resource - water (freshwater run-off)
Freshwater – a natural resource which has been adopted as a human right by the UN in 2002: 'the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient; affordable; physically accessible; safe and acceptable water for perso...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Projected changes in cereal productivity in Africa, due to climate change – current climate to 2080
Water is essential not only to survival but is also equally or even more important than nutrients in food production. Agriculture accounts for nearly 70% of the water consumption, with some estimates as high as 85% (H...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Selected drought events in Africa, 1981-1999, and livestock impacts
Water scarcity in terms of drought or depleted groundwater could therefore have great impacts on livestock and rangelands. These interactions are also complex. While drought can directly threaten livestock, other fact...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Increased global water stress
According to Population Action International, based upon the UN Medium Population Projections of 1998, more than 2.8 billion people in 48 countries will face water stress, or scarcity conditions by 2025. Of these countri...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
The water cycle
Environment water transport system. The water cycle consists of precipitation, vapour transport, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, infiltration, groundwater flow and runoff. Figure 1 explains the global water cycle, ill...
01 Feb 2008 - by Philippe Rekacewicz , UNEP/GRID-Arendal
World's surface water: evaporation and runoff
Because much of the world’s surface water is far from concentrations of human settlements, not all of it is readily usable. Some facts concerning global freshwater concentrations: - It is estimated that the freshwater ...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
A World of Salt
Global water type by percentage. Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. Shiklomanov in Gleick (1993) estimated that: - The total volume of wat...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006
Renewable surface water produced internally
It is difficult to determine the amount of renewable water produced internally from the total renewable water resources (external and internal). However the FAO gives a rather precise definition of this indicator. Intern...
26 Jan 2009 - by GRID-Arendal
Freshwater resources: volume by continent
Glaciers and ice caps cover about 10% of the world’s landmass. These are concentrated in Greenland and Antarctica and contain 70% of the world’s freshwater. Unfortunately, most of these resources are located far from hum...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique)
When the city harms its own water resources
In areas where surface water is not readily available (located far from areas of need), groundwater is the primary water source. Groundwater aquifers supply an estimated 20% of the global population living in arid and se...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz
Global waterstress and scarcity
Water scarcity occurs when the amount of water withdrawn from lakes, rivers or groundwater is so great that water supplies are no longer adequate to satisfy all human or ecosystem requirements, resulting in increased com...
26 Jan 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz (Le Monde diplomatique), February 2006
Hydrogeology
Most of the Sumatran orangutan's forests inland play a key role in ensuring downstream freshwater supplies, since the non-alluvial inland areas of the region tend to have very little or no underlying groundwater resourc...
13 Sep 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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