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Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15
The graph shows Consumption of Nitrogen fertilizers in EU 15 from 1970 to 1992. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients) Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients)
The graphic shows consumption of pesticide (active ingredients) from 1980 to 2010. Pesticides are natural chemicals or altered versions of natural chemicals used in agriculture to control various sorts of pests such as different types of insects, rodents, weed and fungi.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers
The graphic shows the development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers. Water resources in Europe have been profoundly influenced over the past century by human activities, including the construction of dams and canals, large irrigation and drainage systems, changes of land cover in most watersheds, high inputs of chemicals from industry and agriculture into surface and groundwater, and depletion of aquifers. Some of the most...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations
The graph shows the development of Nitrate concentration in groundwater from 1980 to 1995 in France, Britain and Denmark combined. Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound and is normal in small amounts, but excess amounts can pollute supplies of groundwater. Nitrate travels through soil contaminated by fertilizers, livestock waste and septic systems, carried by rain or irrigation water into groundwater supplies.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030 Trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations, Baltic Sea, 1900-2030
The graphic show trends in Nitrogen loads and concentrations in the Baltic Sea from 1900 to 1995 with projections to 2030. The main source of nitrogen in soils is from organic matter. Nitrogen also comes from sources such as factories. A common concern with these forms of inorganic nitrogen is the incremental amount of nitrates they add to the nitrogen cycle, which may threaten groundwater, inland waters and fisheries.
13 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater stress Freshwater stress
Today, the great pressure on water resources is rising human populations, particularly growing concentrations in urban areas. This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic growth or improvements in water use efficiency. The regions most v...
07 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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South Eastern Europe to Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks South Eastern Europe to Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks
The graphic maps out the areas that are at risk, or already contaminated from nuclear industry after the break-up of the former Soviet Union. Nuclear power has unresolved problems of waste disposal. Waste remains dangerous for thousands of human generations and can be converted to plutonium, a component of nuclear weapons. The mining of nuclear fuel, containing U-235 and U-238, can pollute groundwater with both heavy metals and traces of radioact...
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forests Regulate Groundwater Level Forests Regulate Groundwater Level
Forests can regulate groundwater levels and increase drainage of soils where the water table is close to the surface. If there are salts in the upper soil layers, then removal of forests can result in raised groundwater levels and the movement of salts into the rooting zone of plants (FAO 2008c).
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment
Contaminated groundwater can adversely affect animals, plants and humans if it is removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. Depending on the geology of the area, groundwater may rise to the surface through springs or seeps, fl ow laterally into nearby rivers, streams, or ponds, or sink deeper into the earth. In many parts of the world, groundwater is pumped out of the ground to be used for drinking, bathing, other household uses, a...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global freshwater resources: quantity and distribution by region Global freshwater resources: quantity and distribution by region
Glaciers and icecaps contain approximately 70% of the world's freshwater, but groundwater is by far the most abundant and readily available source of freshwater. This graphic illustrates the quantity (in cubic kilometres) and distribution of the world's freshwater resources in glaciers and permanent ice caps, in groundwater, and in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers. Further information is given in the accompanying text.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand Groundwater contamination from canals - Hat Yai, Thailand
In areas where surface water is not readily available (located far away from areas where it is needed), groundwater is the primary water source. This graphic shows the chloride concentration and the potassium concentration, in milligrams per litre, in the city of Hat Yai's canals. It also shows the degree to which the polluted canal water has mixed with the groundwater. Finally, the graphic explains how the city's groundwater has been polluted by...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Groundwater: aquifers, wells and circulation Groundwater: aquifers, wells and circulation
This graphic illustrates groundwater flow, two types of aquifers (confined and unconfined) and three types of wells (artesian; flowing artesian and a water table well in an unconfined aquifer). It shows how groundwater is circulated through the aquifers and how it is recharged. Groundwater represents one of the most important resources for drinking water for human consumption.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater availability: groundwater and river flow Freshwater availability: groundwater and river flow
This graphic shows the availability of freshwater through average river flows and groundwater recharge, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level in the year 2000. The graphic highlights the countries with the least freshwater resources (Egypt and the United Arab Emirates) and those with the most (Suriname and Iceland).
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World's water cycle: schematic and residence time World's water cycle: schematic and residence time
The water cycle consists of precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration and runoff. This graphic explains the global water cycle, showing how nearly 577 000 km3 of water circulates through the cycle each year. A table of estimated residence times of the world's water shows the estimated times that water resources exist as biospheric water; atmospheric water; river channels; swamps; lakes and reservoirs; soil moisture; ice caps and glaciers; oc...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban water cycle Urban water cycle
This graphic illustrates the impact of human activity on groundwater. It shows that groundwater is obtained from periurban wellfields and urban wells, then used and disposed of as wastewater through pluvial drainage, piped sewage and on-site sanitation and industrial effluent disposal. It also shows that wastewater is treated and then reused for irrigation, with excess flows re-entering the aquifers.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Urban water supply and wastewater on a shallow aquifer Urban water supply and wastewater on a shallow aquifer
This graphic shows the changes in water supply and wastewater disposal that occur through four stages of growth of a settlement: early settlement; the town becomes a city; the city expands and the city expands further. The changes include increased groundwater pollution and changes in pluvial drainage, the water table and wellfields.
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates Total global saltwater and freshwater estimates
Estimates of global water resources based on several different calculation methods have produced varied estimates. This graphic illustrates the proportions of saltwater and freshwater that make up the earth's water resources. It also shows what percentage of the world's freshwater is located in lakes and river storage; in groundwater, including soil moisture, swamp water and permafrost, and in glaciers and permanent snow cover.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Moldova, topographic map Moldova, topographic map
Moldova is located in Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania, comprising of 33,843 sq km. It has a population of 4,455,421 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Lithuania, topographic map Lithuania, topographic map
Lithuania is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, comprising of 65,200 sq km. It has a population of 3,596,617 (2005). Major environmental concerns are: contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases.
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nigeria and the freshwater challenge Nigeria and the freshwater challenge
Out of the total precipitation reaching Nigeria, it can be separated into green and blue water. Green water (79% of the precipitation) represents the fraction of rainfall that generates soil moisture and which supports terrestrial ecosystems. It is not returned to groundwater and rivers, but will eventually evaporate or transpire through plants. Blue water, on the other hand, represents the fraction (21%) of the precipitation that runs into river...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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