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The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures The SLCP Opportunity - Benefits of Control Measures
A number of available mitigation options have been identified that if rapidly implemented have the potential to deliver rapid multiple benefits for human well-being by improving air quality and reducing near term global warming.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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The SLCP Challenge The SLCP Challenge
SLCPs are responsible for a substantial fraction of near term climate change, with a particularly large impact on sensitive regions of the world, and have significant detrimental health, agricultural and environmental impacts.
19 Jun 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
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Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback Climate feedbacks - the connectivity of the positive ice/snow albedo feedback, terrestrial snow and vegetation feedbacks and the negative cloud/radiation feedback
Feedback refers to the modification of a process by changes resulting from the process itself. Positive feedbacks accelerate the process, while negative feedbacks slow it down. Part of the uncertainty around future climates relates to important feedbacks between different parts of the climate system: air temperatures, ice and snow albedo (reflection of the sun’s rays), and clouds. An important positive feedback is the ice and snow albedo feedback...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Losses in windstorm catastrophes Losses in windstorm catastrophes
Emissions from human activities, and primarily fossil fuels, contribute to climate change, global warming and the greenhouse effect. This is primarily from industry, energy, transportation and related sectors. Please note that this collection of graphics has since been updated, please see http://www.grida.no or http://unfccc.int/ for the latest information and graphics
12 Feb 2006 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Factors influencing the greenhouse effect Factors influencing the greenhouse effect
There are three main factors that directly influence the energy balance of the earth: the total energy influx, which depends on the earth's distance from the sun and on solar activity; the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and albedo, the ability of the earth's surface to reflect light. The only factor that has changed significantly in the last 100 years is the chemical composition of the atmosphere. This resource also includes a graphic th...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America Change in precipitation for scenarios A2 and B2; Tropical America
When global surface temperatures increase, changes in precipitation and atmospheric moisture are very likely to increase: the hydrological cycle will be more active, and the atmosphere will increase its water holding capacity. Atmospheric water vapour is a climatically critical greenhouse gas, and more of it leads to a stronger greenhouse effect through natural feedback systems. As a rule of thumb, precipitation will increase in areas that alre...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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CO2 emissions in the world and in Latin America and the Caribbean CO2 emissions in the world and in Latin America and the Caribbean
A comparison between the amount of CO2 emissions of the world and latin America and the Caribbean. Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases has grown significantly. The present level of carbon dioxide concentration (around 375 parts per million) is the highest for 420,000 years, and probably the highest for the past 20 million years. CO2 is the greenhouse gas that contributes most to the enhanced greenhouse e...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources Tropical hydropower dams as greenhouse sources
Large tropical hydropower reservoirs in Latin America may have a potential adverse impact on the climatic system through releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Submerging large areas of land and tropical vegetation under water and fluctuations in water level promote physical-chemical processes that decompose the organic matter and generate methane and carbon dioxide emissions. In the initial years of operation, emission levels are especi...
17 May 2005 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land Emissions due to solid waste disposal on land
Landfi ling is the most common waste management practice, and results in the release of methane from the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Methane is around 20 times more potent as a GHG than carbon dioxide. If the disposal of organic matter were to be decreased (for example by composting or incineration) it would be possible to reduce the amount of methane emissions. However, landfill methane is also a source of energy, and some lan...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Contribution from waste to climate change Contribution from waste to climate change
The disposal and treatment of waste can produce emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. The most significant GHG gas produced from waste is methane. It is released during the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. Other forms of waste disposal also produce GHGs but these are mainly in the form of carbon dioxide (a less powerful GHG). Even the recycling of waste produces some emissions (although ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) - Mauna Loa or Keeling curve
Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is steadily rising, and oceans directly assimilate CO2. As ocean concentration of CO2 increases, the oceans automatically become more acidic. This, in turn, may have severe impacts on coral reefs and other biocalcifying organisms. There is little debate on the effect as this is a straight-forward chemical process, but the implications for marine life, that may be severe due to many very pH-sensitive relationships...
01 Nov 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causes of sea level rise from climate change Causes of sea level rise from climate change
A significant sea level rise is one of the major anticipated consequences of climate change. This graphic explains the causes of sea level change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It explains the IPCC's A1 scenario family, which consists of three scenarios on future use of fossil energy sources, including scenario A1F1, which involves the use of fossil-intensive energy sources. This resource also includes the grap...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change scenarios for desert areas by 2050 Climate change scenarios for desert areas by 2050
In desert areas by 2050, the majority of the temperature increase, according to the NCAR-CCSM3 model (and the IPCC SRES A2 scenario), will occur in the Northern Sahara, western Australia and in the inland deserts of North America. The precipitation will increase closer to the equator, but with large decreases primarily in Australia.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change scenarios for desert areas Climate change scenarios for desert areas
SRES scenarios show the period 2071 to 2100 relative to the period 1961 to 1990, and were performed by AOGCMs. Scenarios A2 and B2 are shown as no AOGCM runs were available for the other SRES scenarios.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Norwegian emissions of N2O Norwegian emissions of N2O
Emissions of N20 have a role in the enhanced greenhouse effect. N20 is a long-lived gas, surviving in the atmosphere for about 130 years. The concentration of N20 in the atmosphere is increasing due to a variety of sources including a small contribution from coal combustion.
12 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland
The icebreaking date for the Tornio River in Finland has been recorded since 1693. With the increased greenhouse effect, impacts on the cryosphere are likely. One impact will be less ice on rivers and lakes. Freeze-up dates will be delayed, and break-up will begin earlier. The period of river-ice could be shortened by up to a month. Many rivers within the temperate regions could become ice-free or develop only intermittent or partial ice coverage...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radiative forcing - energy balances and the greenhouse effect Radiative forcing - energy balances and the greenhouse effect
Radiative forcing is the change in the balance between radiation coming into the atmosphere and radiation going out. A positive radiative forcing tends on average to warm the surface of the Earth, and negative forcing tends on average to cool the surface. The figure shows estimates of the globally and annually averaged anthropogenic radiative forcing (in Wm-2) due to changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols from pre-industrial t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Temperature trends and projections Temperature trends and projections
Using the IS92 emission scenarios, projected global mean temperature changes relative to 1990 were calculated up to 2100. Climate models calculate that the global mean surface temperature could rise by about 1 to 4.5 centigrade by 2100. The topmost curve is for IS92e, assuming constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 and high climate sensitivity of 4.5 °C. The lowest curve is for IS92c and assumes constant aerosol concentrations beyond 1990 an...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The carbon cycle The carbon cycle
The global carbon cycle shows the carbon reservoirs in GtC (gigatonne= one thousand million tonnes) and fluxes in GtC/year. The indicated figures are annual averages over the period 1980 to 1989. The component cycles are simplified and the figures present average values. The riverine flux, particularly the anthropogenic portion, is currently very poorly quantified and is not shown here. Evidence is accumulating that many of the fluxes can fluct...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland Trends in the ice-breaking date in the Tornio river, Finland
The icebreaking date for the Tornio River in Finland has been recorded since 1693. With the increased greenhouse effect, impacts on the cryosphere are likely. One impact will be less ice on rivers and lakes. Freeze-up dates will be delayed, and break-up will begin earlier. The period of river-ice could be shortened by up to a month. Many rivers within the temperate regions could become ice-free or develop only intermittent or partial ice coverage...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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