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Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995 Historical Forest Carbon Balance 1855-1995
Through processes of respiration and through the decay of organic matter or burning of biomass, forests release carbon. A carbon ‘sink’ is formed in the forest when the uptake of carbon is higher than the release. The conversion of forested to nonforested areas in developing countries has had a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the tmosphere, as has forest degradation caused by over-exploitation of forests for timber ...
01 Oct 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Regulation of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Water has long been associated with conflicts between neighbouring countries. This graphic shows how water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers is used in Iraq, and that neighbouring Syria and Turkey influence the flow of this water. The graphic shows the locations of main dams, swamps and horticulture in the region. It also shows five of the major ways in which land is used in the region: forest and grazing land; rain-fed agriculture (grains, ve...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Land cover changes in desert areas 1700,1900,2000 and 2050 Land cover changes in desert areas 1700,1900,2000 and 2050
The main land use change in desert areas has been the conversion of relatively barren drylands for agricultural needs, partially through irrigation. The conversion has historically primarily been to use the land for grazing, but the 2050 scenario suggests that small areas on the fringes of deserts will be converted to cropland. The model otherwise predicts modest changes for 2050.
06 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radioactive waste hotspots and transboundary pollution in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley Radioactive waste hotspots and transboundary pollution in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley
The Soviet Union used the Ferghana Valley as one of its main sources of metal and uranium ore. The area has many nuclear waste storage sites, abandoned uranium mines with poorly secured tailing dams and nuclear reactors that pose a severe security hazard. Tailings are exposed to wind erosion and easily accessible to grazing animals.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Impact of human activities on reindeer habitat - Barents region Impact of human activities on reindeer habitat - Barents region
The impact of infrastructure development on reindeer potentially threatens the cultural traditions of the Barents region indigenous people and their chosen way of life. The probability of impact on wildlife, vegetation and ecosystems is related to distance to different types of infrastructure. The distance zones of impact are lowest in forest and highest in open tundra. The extent of the zones are based upon several hundred field studies from int...
26 Jan 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Julien Rouaud, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan) Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan)
The walnut forest is remnants of Central Asia Tertiary era subtropical forests. They are located primarily in the northern slopes of the Ferghana and Chatkal ranges of the Tien Shan and on the southern slopes of the Gissar and Darvaz ranges in Tajikistan. The Jalal-Abad walnut forests is currently under risk of man made damage due to wood fuel cutting, cattle grazing and land cultivating. The forest consists of a remarkable combination of walnut...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries
In most countries, the marketed values of ecosystems associated with timber and fuelwood production are less than one third of the total economic value, including non-marketed values such as carbon sequestration, watershed protection, and recreation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Pasture land in the Caucausus ecoregion Pasture land in the Caucausus ecoregion
Overgrazing and uncontrolled livestock grazing threatens steppe, subalpine and alpine ecosystems. A third of pasturelands in the region are subject to erosion. Sheep grazing in the winter ranges and the steppes and semi-deserts of the eastern Caucasus has nearly tripled in the past decade. Intensive grazing has resulted in reduced species diversity and habitat degradation. Secondary plant communities now occupy 80 percent of grasslands in the sub...
29 Jan 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
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Savannas and tropical grasslands Savannas and tropical grasslands
Savannas cover large areas of Africa and South America and can store significant amounts of carbon, especially in their soils. Activities such as cropping, heavy grazing and increased frequency or intensity of fires can reduce carbon stored in these systems.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Reindeer herding - vegetation impacts (Norway and Finland) Reindeer herding - vegetation impacts (Norway and Finland)
A very high-resolution false color Ikonos-2 satellite image of Jauristunturit in the border zone shared by Norway and Finland. Image acquired 28 June 2001. The main vegetation type is lichen dominated tundra heath with dwarf shrubs. The difference in whiteness is due to lichen coverage, and the national border with reindeer fence visibly divides the area. The northern portion is Norway, where fruticose lichen coverage is higher. This is a consequ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
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Environmental threats in the Barents Region Environmental threats in the Barents Region
The Barents region is in the Arctic and covers the area of Western Russia and the northern areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway. This map indicates the political boundaries and economic areas in the region. More importantly it shows where environmental dangers are located and the level of grazing on pastoral lands. (Please note that the The Barents Euro-Arctic Council has expanded the membership since 1998)
04 Oct 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture land use distribution - croplands and pasture land Agriculture land use distribution - croplands and pasture land
The World's agricultural land is used in different ways, depending on climatic and soil factors, but also related to cultural and social issues. The majority of croplands, where rice, wheat, legumes and corn - among other crops - are spread out in the Northern Hemisphere, in the temperate zone, and in South and Eastern Asia. Areas where primarily livestock is held for agricultural are dominant in Africa, South America and Australia.
08 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture land use distribution - croplands and pasture land Agriculture land use distribution - croplands and pasture land
The World's agricultural land is used in different ways, depending on climatic and soil factors, but also related to cultural and social issues. The majority of croplands, where rice, wheat, legumes and corn - among other crops - are spread out in the Northern Hemisphere, in the temperate zone, and in South and Eastern Asia. Areas where primarily livestock is held for agricultural are dominant in Africa, South America and Australia.
28 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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