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Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo Illegal charcoal trade in eastern DR Congo
The illicit charcoal trade in eastern DRC, but also into Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania, is a significant income to criminals and militias. Militias in DRC are estimated to make 14–50 million USD annually on road taxes (2001 figures, see UNSC, 2001 and UNEP-INTERPOL, 2012).
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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The charcoal supply chain The charcoal supply chain
With current urbanization trends, households are switching from wood fuel to the affordable, convenient and readily accessible charcoal. Wood fuel and charcoal account for up to 90% of the household energy consumption in some countries, in Africa in particular. There exists today a vast illicit, unregulated trade in charcoal, in addition to the legal trade, which provides substantial funds for non-state armed groups.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Charcoal business in Virunga area Charcoal business in Virunga area
The multitude of military groups operating in this region makes Virunga one of the most dangerous parks in the DRC. The charcoal trade is one of many lucrative illicit trades in the park, which also include timber extraction, gold mining, and marijuana cultivation.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Brazilian alcohol transport fleet and regional climate benefits Brazilian alcohol transport fleet and regional climate benefits
In Brazil there are noticeable benefits for using alcohol as a fuel over traditional gasoline. This graphic illustrates the reduction in use of fossil fuels (gasoline) in favor of ethanol/alcohol. This has lead to a reduction in emissions of CO2 emissions, as illustrated by the bottom chart.
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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South Eastern Europe to Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks South Eastern Europe to Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks
The graphic maps out the areas that are at risk, or already contaminated from nuclear industry after the break-up of the former Soviet Union. Nuclear power has unresolved problems of waste disposal. Waste remains dangerous for thousands of human generations and can be converted to plutonium, a component of nuclear weapons. The mining of nuclear fuel, containing U-235 and U-238, can pollute groundwater with both heavy metals and traces of radioact...
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solid Biomass Consumption Including Woodfuel Solid Biomass Consumption Including Woodfuel
Fuelwood and charcoal from forests have long provided energy for heating, cooking and industry. Almost 90 per cent of the wood harvested in Africa, and 40 per cent in Asia and the Pacific, is used for fuel (FAO 2006a). Wood pellets, typically produced in North America and Europe from sawdust and other timber by-products, are increasingly used in stoves, boilers and power stations (Peksa-Blanchard et al. 2007)
20 Jun 2009 - by Philippe Rekacewicz assisted by Cecile Marin, Agnes Stienne, Guilio Frigieri, Riccardo Pravettoni, Laura Margueritte and Marion Lecoquierre.
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Annual world nuclear reactor construction / Spent fuel generation Annual world nuclear reactor construction / Spent fuel generation
Both the volume and the level of radioactivity have to be considered – a large volume of waste with a low-level of radioactivity presents less danger than a smaller amount of waste with a high-level of radioactivity. For example, spent fuel (elements that have been removed from a reactor after use) makes up less than 1% of the volume of radioactive waste, but contains almost 95% of the total radioactivity.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biofuel Production Biofuel Production
The plants grown for biofuel production absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and combustion of the biofuel releases only the CO2 previously absorbed by the plant.
01 Oct 2008 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nuclear waste generation Nuclear waste generation
More than three-quarters of nuclear reactors currently in service are more than 20 years old. After an average service life of 30 years it takes 20 more years to dismantle them. The spent fuel figures for 2002 are national projections. Quantities fluctuated strongly in the United Kingdom, partly due to variations in electricity output from nuclear power. Decommissioning of several older power stations explains the peaks.
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010) Oil exports from inland Eurasia via the Mediterranean Sea, current and projected (2002 and 2010)
The Black and Mediterranean Seas are one of the main outlets for transporting fuel resources that have been extracted around the Caspian Sea region and from further inland. Oil is transported in pipelines to the ports on the Black Sea. Forecast project a dramatic increase by 2010, including the opening of a new port in Turkey.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Causual pathway of conflict over resources Causual pathway of conflict over resources
For violence to occur there should be someone able to extract economic profit from the situation. Access to specific natural resources is a factor that can motivate actors to use violence as means of control (diamonds, oil, timber wars) When looking at the process behind violence it is essential to identify players with an incentive for violence. They need to access resources that facilitate mobilization and expansion of violence. However, societ...
16 Mar 2006 - by Luigi de Martino and Viktor Novikov
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Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan) Walnut forest in the Jalal-Abad province (Kyrgyzstan)
The walnut forest is remnants of Central Asia Tertiary era subtropical forests. They are located primarily in the northern slopes of the Ferghana and Chatkal ranges of the Tien Shan and on the southern slopes of the Gissar and Darvaz ranges in Tajikistan. The Jalal-Abad walnut forests is currently under risk of man made damage due to wood fuel cutting, cattle grazing and land cultivating. The forest consists of a remarkable combination of walnut...
16 Mar 2006 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic Fossil fuel resources and oil and gas production in the Arctic
The Arctic has been opened up for increased exploration of petroleum, gas and mining activities. The Barents Sea, the Mackenzie Valley in Canada and the Alaskan North Slope, are the areas of chief interest at the moment. With increased temperatures and climate change, it is expected that the commercial intrest for more extraction and exploration will increase, as well as shipping of the products. As sea ice decreases, the shipping lanes will beco...
06 Dec 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz & Hugo Ahlenius UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in forest area Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of biomass energy.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Women quantify lack of control over work resources Women quantify lack of control over work resources
Poor rural infrastructure such as the lack of clean water supply, electricity or fuel increases women’s work load and limits their availability for professional training, childcare and income generation. The lack of access to storage facilities and roads contributes to high food costs and low selling prices.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries
It is estimated that exported timber only represents 5 per cent of the wood cut in tropical forests. 10 per cent is timber used locally and the majority - 85 per cent- of wood is for fuel. While exports are generally the preserve of large scale enterprises, the domestic market is dominated by small forest enterprises. In many countries the forest sector constitutes mainly small forest enterprises - employing from 10 to 100 full-time employees. Th...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sustainable development mechanism projects by type Sustainable development mechanism projects by type
Of the 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which have been implemented in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of the projects are related to renewable energy sources and reduction of methane (87% of the total). Only 1% of the CDM projects are related to transportation, 2% to forestation and reforestation, and 2% to fuel substitution. Consequently, there is a clear need for more ex...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Traditional practices, infrastructure and development Traditional practices, infrastructure and development
Indigneous peoples have lived in Arctic for thousands of years, and continue to depend upon the natural resources of the region today. Their traditional subsistence practices include hunting, trapping, fishing and reindeer herding. All of which are conducted in a sustainable manner; that is, in a way that does not lead to long-term or large-scale degredation of the environment. However, the balance they have achieved with the environment through...
21 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions since 1945 Global atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions since 1945
Nuclear explosions - especially the atmospheric tests in the Arctic and from US, UK and Chinese tests at other sites in the world - are the primary source of radioactive contamination in the Arctic. Releases from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe are the second largest source of Arctic radioactivity, while the Chernobyl reactor accicent is the third.
21 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Wildfires in South Africa Wildfires in South Africa
Wildfires mostly affect rural settlements, but to an increasing degree also urban areas, which have developed in fire-prone areas. The impact of wildfires in natural vegetation on the poorest groups of the population cannot be overstated. Many informal settlements are located in the transition zone between densely settled land and land carrying high fuel loads. If not properly managed such areas pose a high risk of wildfires, which may inflict se...
01 Mar 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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