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River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean River discharge of freshwater into the Mediterranean
The estimated mean annual river discharge into the Mediterranean for recent years is about 10.000 m3/s, with a dry season in midsummer and a peak flow in early spring (Struglia et al. 2004). Ranked according to annual discharge, the ten largest rivers contributing to the Mediterranean Sea are the Rhone, Po, Drin-Bojana, Nile, Neretva, Ebro, Tiber, Adige, Seyhan, and Ceyhan. These rivers account for half of the mean annual discharge, with the ...
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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SIDS freshwater availability SIDS freshwater availability
SIDS, though surrounded by water, grapple with limited potable water supplies, poor potable water quality, sanitisation and inefficient distribution systems. The connectivity of the different components of the water cycle is also important, as shortages along one point affect another. Significant pressure is placed on existing freshwater systems in SIDS by urbanisation, unsustainable agricultural practices, the demands of tourism, mining and ...
15 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
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Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems Human population growth rates, 1990–2000, and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and biological productivity in 2000 in ecological systems
Millennium Assessment systems with the lowest net primary productivity and lowest GDP tended to have the highest population growth rates between 1990 and 2000. Urban, inland water, and marine systems are not included due to the somewhat arbitrary nature of determining net primary productivity of the system (urban) or population growth and GDP (freshwater and marine) for them.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of borrowers in the micro-credit scheme Number of borrowers in the micro-credit scheme
Number of borrowers in the MACH micro-credit scheme, Bangladesh
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients) Consumption of pesticides (active ingredients)
The graphic shows consumption of pesticide (active ingredients) from 1980 to 2010. Pesticides are natural chemicals or altered versions of natural chemicals used in agriculture to control various sorts of pests such as different types of insects, rodents, weed and fungi.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable water resources in Europe Renewable water resources in Europe
Water resources are a major political issure with most European countries a large portion of their fresh water supply orginating from other countries. Hungary has over 90 percent of its fresh water coming from river flows of other coutries.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers Development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers
The graphic shows the development of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrate in EU 15 rivers. Water resources in Europe have been profoundly influenced over the past century by human activities, including the construction of dams and canals, large irrigation and drainage systems, changes of land cover in most watersheds, high inputs of chemicals from industry and agriculture into surface and groundwater, and depletion of aquifers. Some of the most...
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations Trends in groundwater nitrate concentrations
The graph shows the development of Nitrate concentration in groundwater from 1980 to 1995 in France, Britain and Denmark combined. Nitrate is a naturally occurring compound and is normal in small amounts, but excess amounts can pollute supplies of groundwater. Nitrate travels through soil contaminated by fertilizers, livestock waste and septic systems, carried by rain or irrigation water into groundwater supplies.
14 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater resources Freshwater resources
Access to water is perhaps one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development in Africa. This resource includes three graphics. The first shows the average annual freshwater withdrawal, in cubic metres per capita per year, at the national level for Africa. The second graphic shows the annual volume of water resources, in cubic kilometres, that each continent has, based on the average of figures from 1921 to 1985. The final graphic shows t...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water availability in Africa Water availability in Africa
Water resources are inextricably linked with climate, so the prospect of global climate change has serious implications for water resources and regional development (Riebsame et al., 1995). This graphic shows water availability per capita in cubic metres for selected countries in Africa in 1990, with projected data for 2025. It also shows which countries were affected by water stress, water scarcity and water vulnerability in 1990, with projected...
17 May 2005 - by Digout, Delphine, based on a sketch by Philippe Rekacewicz; UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Freshwater stress Freshwater stress
Today, the great pressure on water resources is rising human populations, particularly growing concentrations in urban areas. This diagram shows the impact of expected population growth on water usage by 2025, based on the UN mid-range population projection. It uses the current rate of water use per person without taking into account possible increases in water use due to economic growth or improvements in water use efficiency. The regions most v...
07 Nov 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water quality in Albania Water quality in Albania
Water pollution in Albania is recorded on different levels; moderately polluted, organically polluted, and industrially polluted for rivers, lakes and sea areas. This map shows the areas of water pollution throughout Albania.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water quality in Macedonia Water quality in Macedonia
Shows various levels of water quality in the major rivers of Macedonia. If we analyze natural conditions in the country, we shall conclude that Macedonia is a semi-dry area (the area of Ovce Pole is the driest one in the Balkan Region), so the quantity of available water is of particular importance.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transboundary river basins of the Balkans, overview Transboundary river basins of the Balkans, overview
Prior to 1992, there were only six transboundary river basins in the Balkans, but after the break-up of former Yugoslavia, the number more than doubled. There are now 13 internationally shared river basins and four trans-boundary lake basins. Such a fragmented situation means that new international legal regimes specifically for water basins need to be worked out. Talks between the countries concerned are also essential to develop future policies...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Stephane Kluser, Matthias Beilstein, Ieva Rucevska, Cecile Marin, Otto Simonett
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Probability of gastroenteritis amongst bathers exposed to increasing faecal streptococci densities from samples taken at chest depth Probability of gastroenteritis amongst bathers exposed to increasing faecal streptococci densities from samples taken at chest depth
The graphic shows the probability of aquiring gastroenteritis when bathing in water containing faecal contaminants. Gastroenteritis is the irritation and inflammation of the digestive tract. This condition may cause abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. Severe cases of gastroenteritis can result in dehydration.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major River Systems in the Arctic Major River Systems in the Arctic
The Arctic has several of the world’s largest rivers.This graphic shows the major river systems of the Arctic and their annual discharges in cubic kilometres, and the catchment area of the Arctic Ocean. The major river systems shown are the Mackenzie, Yukon, Nelson, Kolyma, Indigirka, Lena, Kotya, Yenisey, Ob, Pechora, Severnyy and Dvina.
28 Sep 2005 - by CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna); see source field
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Global freshwater withdrawal Global freshwater withdrawal
World map showing annual levels of renewable water resources for the year 2000 measured in cubic meters. The use of water varies greatly from country to country and from region to region. 'Withdrawal' refers to water taken from a water source for use. It does not refer to water 'consumed' in that use.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Access to safe drinking water Access to safe drinking water
There are currently more than 1000 million people in the world that lacks access to an easily accessible and safe water source, such as a connection to water mains or a protected well. Instead, water access is limited or available through unprotected sources. The target, under the Millennium Development Goals, is to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global International Water Assessment tools (GIWA) Global International Water Assessment tools (GIWA)
The graphic shows the process of GIWA's assessment methodology and list the five main concerns dealing with water resources, which are freshwater shortage, pollution, habitat and community modification, unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources and global change.
28 Sep 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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