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Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries
Forestry provides more than 8% of the GDP in some of the poorest countries. In most of the developing country production is consumed domestically, but for some countries forestry contributes significantly to total exports like in Liberia and the Central African Republic.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia
With spectacular mountain peak glaciers melting away, the NEvado de Santa Isabel area in Colombia becomes less attractive to tourists. In addition, the local forestry and agricultural fertility suffer may suffer from reduced spring water. The retreat of glaciers is an indicator for changes in regional and global climate.
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Changes in economic structure for selected countries Changes in economic structure for selected countries
While traditional natural resource sectors such as agriculture, forestry, and fisheries are still important in industrial-country economies, the relative economic and political significance of other sectors has grown as a result of the ongoing transition from agricultural to industrial and service economies.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Trade in illegal wood products and corruption Trade in illegal wood products and corruption
Where government officials are keen to keep an eye shut for a share of the profits, the more the forests suffer. About 5 billion USD per year is estimated to be lost due to uncollected taxes and royalties on legally sanctioned timber harvests due to corruption. Other forests are falling while the responsible officers look the other way. A majority of the illegal timber comes from Asia, with China and Indonesia as the main sources.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth
To alleviate rural poverty, one way is to sustainably use the natural resources available to the people and the communities. By supporting and expanding fisheries, small-scale mining, forestry, ecosystem services and other similar activities and making it easier to run a businesses out of these, economic growth can be gained. This illustration symbolizes this in the form of a tree, with different natural resources as leaves and the trunk being ma...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries The importance of small forestry enterprises in developing countries
It is estimated that exported timber only represents 5 per cent of the wood cut in tropical forests. 10 per cent is timber used locally and the majority - 85 per cent- of wood is for fuel. While exports are generally the preserve of large scale enterprises, the domestic market is dominated by small forest enterprises. In many countries the forest sector constitutes mainly small forest enterprises - employing from 10 to 100 full-time employees. Th...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
The development potential - available land per capita, in land use class The development potential - available land per capita, in land use class
The amount of land area available per capita provides a rough measure on the current carrying capacity for food security and for the development of additional agricultural products for export – such as biofuels. The calculation presented in this figure show that most of Asia is very limited in this respect, especially since populations are expected to increase. Latin America and parts of Sub-Saharan Africa show more potential for the development ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda
The Mabira forest reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria hosts valuable wildlife, serves as a timber resource, provides ecosystem services for the water balance and the rainforests represents a tourist destination. Following a proposed plan for clearing a third of the reserve for agricultural use, the values of the forest were calculated by local researchers. This economic evaluation of the forest shows that from a short-term perspective, growin...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
2
Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003 Reforestation, town of Galma and surroundings, Niger 1975 and 2003
In 1970s and 1980s - years of environmental crisis, there were few trees remaining in Niger. Wind-blown sands razed farmers' young crops and they often had to plant crops three times to succeed. Since the middle of the 1980s in the most densely populated parts of Niger farmers have begun to protect and manage young trees and bushes regenerating on their cultivated fields. This is natural farmer-managed forest regeneration. Some trees fix nitrogen...
01 Oct 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Boreal forest Boreal forest
The boreal forest biome holds the second largest stock of carbon; most of this is stored in the soil and litter. The draining of boreal forest peatlands, inappropriate forestry practices and poor fire management may all cause significant losses of the carbon stored in this ecosystem.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Plantation forestry Plantation forestry
Timber forestry can be adapted to increase the amount of carbon held in plantations.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change) Emissions per GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2005 (includes land use change)
A strong heterogeneity in the ratio emission to GDP, including the land use change, is observed among the countries of the region. Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia stand out because of the importance of emissions related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU).
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo (Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
3
Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector Latin America greenhouse gas emitters by sector
According to reports from the region’s countries, contained in national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions relate to changes in land use, forestry, agriculture and energy consumption. Brazil stands out as the highest emitter of greenhouse gasses caused by land use changes, accounting for more than 800,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. The importance of agricul...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Logging concessions in the Guatemalan Maya Biosphere Reserve (MAB) Logging concessions in the Guatemalan Maya Biosphere Reserve (MAB)
Logging concessions in the Guatemalan Maya Biosphere Reserve (MAB)
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Employment, by logging concession, for the Guatemala Maya Biosphere (MAB) Employment, by logging concession, for the Guatemala Maya Biosphere (MAB)
Employment, by logging concession, for the Guatemala Maya Biosphere (MAB)
11 Jul 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Indonesian exports of forest products Indonesian exports of forest products
Exports of wood products from Indonesia, with final destinations such as China, Japan and North America. Almost three quarters of the wood end in destinations in Asia. In the black market, with illegal timber, the products are known to change country of origin and their labeling and classification as they are smuggled.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Current and future threats from illegal logging and mining in national parks in Indonesia Current and future threats from illegal logging and mining in national parks in Indonesia
The management and enforcement of the protection regime in Indonesia is insufficient, and illegal activities - such as logging and mining, is rampant. The RAPPAM methodology, developed by WWF, has been used to assess the relative pressures and threats using questionnaires and workshops. Borneo and Sumatra are home to the Orangutan, and the protected areas represent vital habitat for the survival of the species.
01 Nov 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia Routes for exports of illegally logged ramin timber in Indonesia
Ramin, Gonystylus sp., is a group of tropical hardwood species in South East Asia, listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red list, and the trade of the timber is regulated under CITES. Illegal logging of these species is common in Indonesia, even in protected areas. The timber is transported to sawmills in Indonesia and Malaysia and further exported to destinations in Asia, North America, Europe and elsewhere. Final market prices might amount to as hi...
22 Jan 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Top 20 greenhouse gas emitters (including land use change and forestry) Top 20 greenhouse gas emitters (including land use change and forestry)
The following gases are taken into account: CO2 - Carbon dioxide CH4 - Methane N2O - Nitrous oxide PFCs - Perfluorocarbons HFCs - Hydrofluorocarbons SF6 - Sulphur hexafluoride
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Working for Water employment Working for Water employment
The Working for Water programme was launched in 1995 and is administered through the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. The programme works in partnership with local communities which it provides with jobs, and also with government departments including the then Departments of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Agriculture, and Trade and Industry, provincial departments of agriculture, conservation and environment, research foundations and...
01 Nov 2011 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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