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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tree line in the Arctic Tree line in the Arctic
This graphic shows the location of the arctic tree line. Boreal forest occurs only to the south of the tree line (the dark green line on the graphic). The Arctic area, as defined by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), is limited by the orange line on the graphic.
04 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tree line in the Arctic Tree line in the Arctic
This graphic shows the location of the arctic tree line. Boreal forest occurs only to the south of the tree line (the dark green line on the graphic). The Arctic area, as defined by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), is limited by the orange line on the graphic.
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Impact of human activities on reindeer habitat - Barents region Impact of human activities on reindeer habitat - Barents region
The impact of infrastructure development on reindeer potentially threatens the cultural traditions of the Barents region indigenous people and their chosen way of life. The probability of impact on wildlife, vegetation and ecosystems is related to distance to different types of infrastructure. The distance zones of impact are lowest in forest and highest in open tundra. The extent of the zones are based upon several hundred field studies from int...
26 Jan 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Julien Rouaud, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barren Lands Barren Lands
Deforestation is well known for aggravating erosion. Bare soil has no protection against heavy rain, washing away immediately. On hillsides, it readily turns into mudslides leaving people very little time to seek refuge and cutting deep ravines into the earth. And where deforested land was turned into cultivated fields, the soil is likely to be overused and exploited through intensive use of fertiliser.
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected areas and conservation hotspots in Albania Protected areas and conservation hotspots in Albania
The graphic shows the protected areas of Albania, the proposed areas for protection and areas with endangered species. Albania is well known for its high diversity of ecosystems and habitats. Within its territory there are maritime ecosystems, coastal zones, lakes, rivers, evergreen and broadleaf bushes, broadleaf forests, pine forests, alpine and sub-alpine pastures and meadows, and high mountain ecosystems. It is rich in forest and pasture reso...
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries Contribution of forest to GDP, and ratio of forest exports out of total exports, for selected countries
Forestry provides more than 8% of the GDP in some of the poorest countries. In most of the developing country production is consumed domestically, but for some countries forestry contributes significantly to total exports like in Liberia and the Central African Republic.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation Schematic diagram of glacier, permafrost and forest limits as a function of mean annual air temperature and average annual precipitation
Glaciers and ice caps form around the world where snow deposited during the cold/humid season does not entirely melt during warm/dry times. This seasonal snow gradually becomes denser and transforms into perennial firn (rounded, well-bonded snow that is older than one year) and finally, after the air passages connecting the grains are closed off, into ice. The ice from such accumulation areas then flows under the influence of its own weight and t...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Landcover - Europe and Central Asia Landcover - Europe and Central Asia
The Western part of the Eurasian continent, has some of the most populated and fertile parts of the World. Central Europe is densely populated, with few remaining fragments of undisturbed habitat, except for the mountain ranges. In the north - Scandinavia and Northern Russia, there is the taiga belt, with vast expanses of confierous forest, and further north, there is tundra and glaciers. Central Asia and Caucasus is a diverse region, with desert...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Areas affected by deforestation Areas affected by deforestation
Deforestation is a key global environmental indicator. Many regions of the world are affected by deforestation: namely in South America (Brazil), Central Africa (Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Eastern Europe.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Disappearing forests Disappearing forests
From 1970 to 1990 there was significant deforestation of both primary and secondary forests in Thailand: during this thirty year period, the area covered by primary and secondary forest declined by more than half.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Conversion of terrestrial biomes Conversion of terrestrial biomes
It is not possible to estimate accurately the extent of different biomes prior to significant human impact, but it is possible to determine the “potential” area of biomes based on soil and climatic conditions.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework
International demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increases flood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Actions can be taken either to respond to negative changes or to enhance positive changes at almost all points in this framework.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in forest area Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of biomass energy.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG) Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG)
The cell color indicates impact of each driver on biodiversity in each type of ecosystem over the past 50–100 years. High impact means that over the last century the particular driver has significantly altered biodiversity in that biome; low impact indicates that it has had little influence on biodiversity in the biome. The arrows indicate the trend in the driver. Horizontal arrows indicate a continuation of the current level of impact; diagonal ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries
In most countries, the marketed values of ecosystems associated with timber and fuelwood production are less than one third of the total economic value, including non-marketed values such as carbon sequestration, watershed protection, and recreation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades Locations reported by various studies as undergoing high rates of land cover change in the past few decades
In the case of forest cover change, the studies refer to the period 1980–2000 and are based on national statistics, remote sensing, and, to a limited degree, expert opinion. In the case of land cover change resulting from degradation in drylands (desertification), the period is unspecified but inferred to be within the last half-century, and the major study was entirely based on expert opinion, with associated low certainty. Change in cultivated ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050 Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050
100% degradation means that all the services in the category were degraded in 2050 compared with 2000, while 50% improvement could mean that three out of six services were enhanced and the rest were unchanged or that four out of six were enhanced and one was degraded. The total number of services evaluated for each category was six provisioning services, nine regulating services, and five cultural services.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion
About 17% of the total land area of the Caucasus is covered by forests, primarily found between altitudes of 500-2000m and growing on steep slopes. Most forests are broadleaf forests but a number of different types are found, including birch forests, oak forests, fir forests, alder forests and wing nuts forests. In Georgia the total area covered by forests is 40% while forest areas in the Northern Caucasus amount to 11.4%, in Azerbaijan to 14-15%...
01 Nov 2008 - by WWF-Caucasus, design Manana Kurtubadze
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