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Nigeria and the freshwater challenge Nigeria and the freshwater challenge
Out of the total precipitation reaching Nigeria, it can be separated into green and blue water. Green water (79% of the precipitation) represents the fraction of rainfall that generates soil moisture and which supports terrestrial ecosystems. It is not returned to groundwater and rivers, but will eventually evaporate or transpire through plants. Blue water, on the other hand, represents the fraction (21%) of the precipitation that runs into river...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP Agriculture in Africa, value added out of GDP
For the future of Africa, agriculture remains one of the most important issues. A majority of the population, especially outside urban areas, are involved in agriculture, and food security is one of the most important issues to solve in the short term in some parts of the region. The current financial importance varies, as presented in this map, with agriculture representing up to 50-60% of the total economy in some countries (Guinea-Bissau, Cent...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods Africa: policy on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and genetically engineered (GE) foods
The Cartagena protocol on biosafety, a supplement to the convention on biological diversity, has strong support in Africa, with a majority of the countries as signatories. In addition, several countries have, in the past, rejected aid (especially unmilled grains) in food imports with concerns for national biosafety. South Africa is so far the only country that is seeing wide-spread use of genetically modified crops.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Share of food in total household expenses (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan) Share of food in total household expenses (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan)
In all the areas bordering on the Caspian, priority must be given to diversifying activities and investment. Particular attention should be given to sectors such as tourism, agriculture and food production as well as services.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Discharge of pollutants in the Caspian Sea - mercury and cadmium Discharge of pollutants in the Caspian Sea - mercury and cadmium
Mercury and Cadmium are classified as toxic metals, and are persistant pollutants in the environment, that stays in the system and is accumulated through the food chains. The main release of these pollutants are on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, off the coast of Russia and Azerbaijan.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species) Comb-jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) spreading through the Caspian Sea (invasive species)
The comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) is well adapted to the habitat (salinity, temperature, and food range) and reproduces faster than endemic species. As it eats the same food as them, it has had a drastic effect on their numbers, upsetting the entire food chain. The jelly is an invasive species, brought from North America by ships.
04 Oct 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
17 May 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate change vulnerability in Africa Climate change vulnerability in Africa
Multiple stresses make most of Africa highly vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change is likely to increase this vulnerability. This graphic shows which of the regions of Africa (North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands) are most vulnerable to specific impacts of climate change. These impacts include desertification, sea level rise, reduced freshwater availability,...
20 Sep 2005 - by Delphine Digout, Revised by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Crushed by war - world conflicts Crushed by war - world conflicts
For people in countries at war or subject to economic embargos many goods are scarce, food and water constituting the most crucial shortages. But they also have to deal regularly with death and injury. In such countries disaster prevention may well not be a priority.
01 Feb 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nutrition in Central Asia [Russian] Nutrition in Central Asia [Russian]
In the year 2000 the Aral Sea region did not have properly balanced nutitional elements in food production and the supply was lower than demand. For the year 2020 the demand is predicted to grow and without preventing major climate change there may be a crisis in the area. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nutrition in Central Asia Nutrition in Central Asia
In the year 2000 the Aral Sea region did not have properly balanced nutitional elements in food production and the supply was lower than demand. For the year 2020 the demand is predicted to grow and without preventing major climate change there may be a crisis in the area.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Can the Aral Sea produce enough food? Can the Aral Sea produce enough food?
The Aral Sea is facing a challenge in producing enough food for the surrounding area. In all predictive models of climate change rate the region will be in for hard times when it comes to producing food by the year 2020.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Can the Aral Sea produce enough food? [Russian] Can the Aral Sea produce enough food? [Russian]
The Aral Sea is facing a challenge in producing enough food for the surrounding area. In all predictive models of climate change rate the region will be in for hard times when it comes to producing food by the year 2020. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region Water, irrigated cropland percentage by region
Irrigated land currently produces 40% of the world’s food on 17% of the world’s land. A broadening of irrigation and more effective rain fed agriculture will be necessary to meet the need for increasing agricultural outputs – for domestic use and exports.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water requirements for food production 1960-2050 Water requirements for food production 1960-2050
The requirements for water in agriculture in developing countries will need to increase in order to meet the Millennium Development Goal 1, target 2 'Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger'. To decrease hunger the outputs in agriculture will need to increase, and thus the water use. The data has been calculated for developing countries with minimum set of calories.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pathways of contaminants to the Arctic Pathways of contaminants to the Arctic
Many POPs (persistent organic pollutants), heavy metals and other contaminants from emissions further south are accumulated in Arctic food chains and ultimately in indigenous peoples. This process is often referred to as long-range pollution or long-range transport of pollutants. While fear of these compounds sometimes has resulted in abandonment of traditional foods, this has also led to more unhealthy food habits acquired from non-indigenous pe...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water towers of Asia - glaciers, water and population in the greater Himalayas-Hindu Kush-Tien Shan-Tibet region Water towers of Asia - glaciers, water and population in the greater Himalayas-Hindu Kush-Tien Shan-Tibet region
The Himalayas–Hindu Kush, Kunlun Shan, Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges function as water towers, providing water to people through much of Asia. The glacier-fed rivers originating from the Himalaya mountain ranges surrounding the Tibetan Plateau comprise the largest river run-off from any single location in the world. While the mountains are homes to some 170 million people, the rivers that drain these mountains influence the lives of about 4...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Population size of Peary caribou in the Canadian Arctic islands Population size of Peary caribou in the Canadian Arctic islands
In northwestern North America, recent warming has led to a dramatic increase in the number of days of above freezing temperatures during the migration period for the caribou (Rangifier tarandus). Thawing and subsequent re-freezing of snow results in ice layers in the snow pack which hinder travel of Rangifer and make it harder to cater for food. There have been catastrophic declines in the Peary caribou on the Arctic islands of North America and ...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bad harvests in South Niger Bad harvests in South Niger
In Niger, one of the world's poorest countries, people are far more concerned about the availability of food than its quality. In some areas, particularly in August and September when one crop runs out and the next is not ready to harvest, people eat very little – some days nothing at all.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops Effects of enhanced UV-B radiations on crops
Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth. However the observed drop in yield does not seem serious enough for scientists to sound the alarm.
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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