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Waste management choices in Europe Waste management choices in Europe
Not long ago the amount and composition of waste was such that it could be simply diluted and dispersed into the environment. Most items were reused and only a few remained, that would not decompose naturally. With industrialisation and rising urban density, a new concept followed: collect and dump out of sight. The aim was to eliminate waste or at least protect the population from it. This generally involved either openly burning it (still pract...
15 Dec 2006 - by Emmanuelle Bournay
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Energy production waste in selected European countries Energy production waste in selected European countries
Waste is a major environmental concern for the energy sector. Depending on the type of energy, the production process itself will generate substantial quantities of waste. The energy sector generates specific types of waste: waste from mining and upgrading coal and lignite (tailing); waste from oil and gas refining; combustion waste from thermal power stations; waste from air-pollution abatement devices and fi nally the components of the power st...
01 Oct 2006 - by Diana Rizzolio
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Emissions and energy scenarios by source Emissions and energy scenarios by source
Despite the Kyoto protocol and increased concern over the consequences of climate change, world wide emissions of CO2 continues to grow. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) world total CO2 emissions will increase by 62% from 2002 – 2030. More than two-thirds of the increase will come from developing countries. They will overtake the OECD as the leading contributor to global emissions early in the 2020s. Despite the strong increase ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic sea routes - Northern sea route and Northwest passage Arctic sea routes - Northern sea route and Northwest passage
Sea routes along the edges of the Arctic ocean, or rather along the coasts of Northern Canada and Russia, holds potential for decreasing the number of days in shipping goods from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts in Europe and North America, and vice versa. In addition, this could provide a means to transport natural resources, such as oil and gas, extracted in the Arctic. Currently these routes have not been possible to use this, due to the ice con...
07 Oct 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human Impact - Europe and the Near East Human Impact - Europe and the Near East
The assessment and modelling of current impact on wilderness show that there are few areas in Europe proper that have seen little human impact - it is all broken up by roads thus lowering the value of habitats primarily for big mammals. Areas with wilderness qualities can be found in the Arctic and further East in this analysis.
26 Jan 2006 - by Torstein Olsen and Einar Lieng, Statens Kartverk (for UNEP/GRID-Arendal)
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Life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-1991 Life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-1991
This graphic shows life expectancy at birth in 1980 and 1987-91 in Europe and former USSR. The graphic clearly shows the extended life expectancy at birth from 1987-1991, compared to the life expectancy at birth in 1980.
11 Feb 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in Central Asia [Russian] Energy consumption in Central Asia [Russian]
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central Asia with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan being the worst at energy consumption. In Russian.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy consumption in Central Asia Energy consumption in Central Asia
Industry in Central Asia consumes two hundred to three hundred more energy than in Western Europe. The levels of productivity based on consumption of electricity and gross domestic product is noticeably lower in Central Asia with Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan being the worst at energy consumption.
14 Feb 2006 - by I. Atamuradova, V. Yemelin, P. Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002 Catches in the Mauritania Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 1950-2002
Marine fisheries represent a significant, but finite, natural resource for coastal countries. The majority of the catches in some of the areas of the coast are not primarily by the coastal countries, but rather as in this example, where countries from Europe and Asia (Japan and South Korea are in the ‘others’ group) represent the majority. According to this estimation Mauritania only landed about 10% of the total catch in 2002, with Netherlands a...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World economy cartogram World economy cartogram
To highlight the distribution of wealth and power in the world of today, this cartogram sizes the countries according to their relative financial status, here presented through gross domestic product (gdp) per capita, offering an alternative world view to a regular map. Countries such as China and India become much smaller, next to giants in Western Europe, North America and Japan. Africa represents a minor speck, while South and Central America ...
13 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Vladimir S. Tikunov
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Projected reduction in snow 2080-2100 Projected reduction in snow 2080-2100
Using one specific climate change model (ECHAM5) and the SRES A2 emission scenario (run 2) the projected loss of snow amounts to decreases of 60–80 per cent in monthly maximum snow water equivalent over most middle latitudes by the end of this century. The largest decreases are projected over Europe, while the model projects increases are in the Canadian Arctic and Siberia. Snow presents an important factor for ecosystems, water and human activit...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World ocean thermohaline circulation World ocean thermohaline circulation
The global conveyor belt thermohaline circulation is driven primarily by the formation and sinking of deep water (from around 1500m to the Antarctic bottom water overlying the bottom of the ocean) in the Norwegian Sea. When the strength of the haline forcing increases due to excess precipitation, runoff, or ice melt the conveyor belt will weaken or even shut down. The variability in the strength of the conveyor belt will lead to climate change in...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected increase (days) of the navigation season through the Northern Sea Route as an average of 5 ACIA model projections Projected increase (days) of the navigation season through the Northern Sea Route as an average of 5 ACIA model projections
The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is a seasonally ice-covered marine shipping lane along the Russian coasts, from Novaya Zemlya in the west to the Bering Strait in the east. The NSR is administered by the Russian Ministry of Transport and has been open to marine traffic of all nations since 1991. For trans-Arctic voyages, the NSR represents a saving in distance of up to 40 per cent from Northern Europe to northeastern Asia and northwestern North Ameri...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska Trends in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska
There has been a general increase in permafrost temperatures during the last several decades in Alaska, northwest Canada, Siberia, and northern Europe. Permafrost temperature records have been obtained uninterrupted for more than 20 years along the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Alaskan transect, which spans the entire continuous permafrost zone in the Alaskan Arctic. Records from all locations along the transect show a substantial w...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia Major mineral fuel resources in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
Mineral fuels for electricity and heat generation take primarily two forms: fossil fuels in the form of oil, natural gas and coal, and uranimum ore for nuclear power. Oil and gas are distributed in different belts, primarily in the North Sea, Caucasus and Northern Russia. Coal in different forms is still an important fuel resource and resources are distributed over the region. Uranium resources are primarily in Ukraine and Central Asia.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007 The expansion of the European Union, political map 1957, 1987, 1997 and 2007
The political map and landscape in Europe has changed drastically in the period of 1957-2007. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the European Communities was formed in 1957 by the treaty of Rome, with six signatories. This was a time with considerable poltical tension between the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw pact, COMECON and associated countries) on one side, and NATO on the other. Through time, the communities expanded with the associated EFTA c...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Landcover - Europe and Central Asia Landcover - Europe and Central Asia
The Western part of the Eurasian continent, has some of the most populated and fertile parts of the World. Central Europe is densely populated, with few remaining fragments of undisturbed habitat, except for the mountain ranges. In the north - Scandinavia and Northern Russia, there is the taiga belt, with vast expanses of confierous forest, and further north, there is tundra and glaciers. Central Asia and Caucasus is a diverse region, with desert...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Solar insolation Solar insolation
Solar insolation, the quantification of energy per surface area on the ground, can be used as an indicator for the potential for solar energy. This map presents solar insolation in Europe and neighboring countries, calculated to annual averages from monthly averages 1983 - 1993.
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Renewable energy production in Europe and Central Asia 2004 (heat production and electricity generation) Renewable energy production in Europe and Central Asia 2004 (heat production and electricity generation)
Hydropower, generation of electricity from dams in rivers, represents the majority of the energy produced, so far, with waste incineration - both from municipal and industrial sources, as a distant second. Other energy sources, such as biomass, windpower and solar power represents a very little share of the renewable energy produced so far. Energy consumption has been increasing in the region, since the 1990s, and with it the emissions of greenho...
20 Jul 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Severity of land degradation Severity of land degradation
The highest levels of land degradation is in Europe. Specifically degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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