HomeAboutActivitiesMapsPhotosPublicationsNews
 
Home >> Environmental impact

Tag: Environmental impact

Environmental investigation Environmental investigation
List of potential studies that may be required to define the environment prior to development. Note that this is not an exhaustive list.
03 Mar 2014 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Mediterranean cumulative impact model Mediterranean cumulative impact model
None of the factors affecting the Mediterranean Sea and its coasts, along with its inhabitants, exist in isolation. Different pressures act over time and in unison to affect the resilience of ecosystems and their ability to deliver ecosystem services. Increasing and multiple uses of ocean space increase the chances that certain threats will cause more impact when occurring simultaneously than the additive effect of individual pressures.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea Demersal destructive fishing in the Mediterranean Sea
Fishing is one of the major contributors to habitat damage in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of this damage comes from trawling operations. Since fishing is most intense in the Western Mediterranean, it is not surprising that impacts on marine habitats are particularly severe there (UNEP/MAP 2012). Benthic, or sea-bottom, habitats and the communities associated with them are especially vulnerable.
19 Nov 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zimbabwe Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zimbabwe
An initial impact of land reform was deforestation as forests were cleared to accommodate larger numbers of farmers, but the impact is yet to be quantified. Figure 4.52 shows that the proportion of land area covered by forests dropped by eight per cent per decade in the period from 1990 to 2010, according to FAO estimates.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Wood production in Zimbabwe Wood production in Zimbabwe
Between 2000 and 2005, Zimbabwe had the sixth highest rate of deforestation in Africa, averaging 3 130 sq km per year (FAO 2005), with increasing uncontrolled bush and forest fires. Agriculture is responsible for an estimated 700 sq km (roughly one quarter) of this annual loss, while heavy dependence on wood for fuel and commercial logging account for the rest.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zambia Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Zambia
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped more than six per cent since 1990, leaving two-thirds of the land under forests as shown in this figure.
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Fuelwood production in Zambia Fuelwood production in Zambia
The consumption of fuelwood is expected to increase by 35 per cent between 2000 and 2020 (FAO 2003) and had already reached a level of 8.8 million cu m per year by 2009 (Figure 4.44). Much of the fuelwood is converted to charcoal for use in urban households or rural industries. Eighty per cent of the population continues to use solid fuels, although this is down from 86 per cent in 1990 (Government of Zambia 2008). Alternative methods need to ...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Threatened species in Tanzania Threatened species in Tanzania
Tanzania is a large country with vast biological diversity and high numbers of threatened species,well documented. According to IUCN (2008), Tanzania has 10 008 known species of higher plants including endemic and non-endemic, out of which 235 (2.9 per cent) are threatened. Of the 316 known mammal species 42 are threatened (excluding marine mammals). There are 229 known breeding bird species out of which 33 are threatened (excluding those that mi...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Tanzania Change in proportion of land area covered by forests in Tanzania
The proportion of land area covered by forests has dropped by 19 per cent since 1990 due to deforestation, leaving just over one-third of the land under forests as shown in this figure. Much of the fuelwood that is cut is converted to charcoal for use in urban households. Rural industries also use substantial amounts of fuelwood. Alternative methods need to be applied and indigenous knowledge systems should be incorporated into sustainable harv...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Hazards in and around the Caspian Hazards in and around the Caspian
The map highlights the various environmental hazards around the Caspian Sea.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Discharge of selected pollutants Discharge of selected pollutants
Data referring to the Biological Oxygen Demand load (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels were available for all five of the Caspian countries through the Baseline Inventory Report.
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Regional land degradation Regional land degradation
Climate change-related land degradation or desertification is another phenomenon affecting all Caspian Sea littoral states. In the normal course of events, a lack of rainfall and extreme summer evaporation result in a high level of aridity in the Caspian Sea region, especially in coastal areas of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. But deserts and desertification are not limited to the eastern part of the Caspian Sea coastal zone. Land degradation ...
17 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans Nitrogen sources to watershed exports to the oceans
Over the last 20 years, significant data and experience in understanding and addressing the sectoral drivers, pressures, sources, impacts and response to reactive nitrogen have been gathered and progress made in trying to address these issues. The key sectors that are involved include the agriculture, waste-water management, and fertilizer production sectors. As shown in the figure for the year 2000, models indicate that globally, roughly equal a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Production of nitrogen Production of nitrogen
The rapid increase in the production of reactive nitrogen via the Haber-Bosch process correlates closely with the increase in world population from about 2.6 billion in 1950 to over 6 billion in 2000 (figure page 78). Based on the figures from Dawson and Hilton (2011), over 2 billion tonnes of reactive nitrogen was manufactured in that period. The enormous increase in artificial fertilizer production catalyzed by the Haber-Bosch process has a...
16 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries Threatened Species in the Zambezi River Basin countries
Despite the abundance of wildlife resources in the basin, there are pressures that threaten the existence of this resource. Species that have become extinct in the basin in recent times include the blue wildebeest in Malawi, the Tsetsebe in Mozambique, and the Kob in Tanzania (SADC and SARDC 2008). Others face a high risk of extinction, and the number of threatened species across the basin continues to rise. The White (Grass) rhinocerous, Black (...
14 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Merury management options Merury management options
Several stabilization technologies exist: chemical transformation into a more stable, less mobile chemical compound; micro-encapsulation, the embedding of particles in an impermeable matrix such as cement; and macro-encapsulation, the covering of waste material with an impermeable material, for example polyethylene. The fact that stabilized mercury is non-toxic significantly helps the search for suitable storage sites. Unlike liquid mercury, the ...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs) Compact fluorescent lamps (CLFs)
Mercury is widely used in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and the demand for them is increasing in the quest for energy efficiency. According to the EU Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS Directive), mercury content in CFLs not exceeding 5 mg per lamp is allowed. These lamps reduce electricity consumption so that in countries that generate electricity largely from coal, the...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry The industry's self-commitment to phase out mercury use in the chlor-alkali industry
Efforts to confront the threat posed by mercury to human health and the environment have grown over the last decades. There are a number of initiatives aiming, for example, to reduce the use of mercury in products, to remediate sites and to clean up historic pollution. Some countries have introduced far-reaching regulations. Global action, however, has been rather limited. In 2008, United States of America (USA) introduced its Mercury Export B...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM)
Mercury residues from mining and industrial processing, as well as mercury in waste, have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites all over the world. Polluted soil can contain as much as 400 grammes of mercury per hectare, as measured at a Venezuelan gold mining site (Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2006). Most mercury contamination sites are concentrated in the industrial areas of North America, Europe and Asia; and in sub-Saharan Africa and Sou...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
4
Long-range mercury transport Long-range mercury transport
Coal burning for electric power generation and for industrial purposes continues to increase, especially in Asia (UNEP, 2013). Assessing the global spread and fate of mercury is a challenging task, as there are few studies available about net deposition of different forms of mercury in air, water and land. For example, when mercury moves from air to water and land it is generally in an oxidized gaseous or particle form, whereas when it is remitte...
11 Oct 2013 - by GRID-Arendal
3
      1 2 | Next