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Ever growing numbers of refugees Ever growing numbers of refugees
Many people forced into exile for ecological reasons have to claim political refugee status. For instance, in 1992 the thousands of people who fled the drought in Mozambique had political refuge status in Zambia. Gaining this status was easy since Zambia needed to increase its refugee population to qualify for more international aid. After the drought ended, the eco-refugees returned to Mozambique before official repatriation started.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty and unemployment in New York City Poverty and unemployment in New York City
The United States Census Bureau sets the poverty thresholds according to money income before taxes, excluding capital gains and noncash benefits, family size and number of children under 18 years old. These thresholds were developed by the Social Security Administration (SSA) in 1964, then revised by interagency committees (1969, 1981). They are adjusted each year using the annual average Consumer Price Index (CPI). For example, a single person u...
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Disappearing forests Disappearing forests
From 1970 to 1990 there was significant deforestation of both primary and secondary forests in Thailand: during this thirty year period, the area covered by primary and secondary forest declined by more than half.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Poverty and cholera in Kwazulu-Natal January 2001 Poverty and cholera in Kwazulu-Natal January 2001
Data and maps on poverty, sanitation, safe and clean water and the incidence of cholera were used to help contain the spread of cholera in the Kwazulu Natal province in January 2001. Poverty and cholera data sets showed that the cholera outbreak followed a river flood plain and moved through and towards poor areas.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Central Asia in peril Central Asia in peril
Communities face appalling health problems. In Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, drinking water is saline and polluted, with a high content of metals that causes a range of diseases. Over the past 15 years there has been a thirty-fold increase in chronic bronchitis and in kidney and liver diseases, especially cancer and arthritic diseases have increased sixty-fold. The infant mortality rate is one of the world's highest.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
World population scenarios World population scenarios
Some factors (such as global population growth) will begin to decline in importance and others (distribution of people, climate change, and changes to nutrient cycles) will gain more importance in the near future.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
A multifunctional perspective of agriculture A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only commodities (food, fodder, fibers and biofuels), but also non-commodity outputs such as ecosystem services, landscape amenities and cultural heritages.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Transportation network in the Caucasus ecoregion Transportation network in the Caucasus ecoregion
Transportation routes through mountain regions have always been of vital importance not just for mountain dwellers but also for traders between regions. In the Caucasus, transport routes are of immense importance as they connect Asia and Europe and facilitate the transportation of crucial industrial inputs from one continent to the other. Increase in freight transportation occurred between the 1970s and 1980s and regained momentum in the late 199...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create models for how the human society reacts? This map presents a rough idea of changes in agricultural output from increased temperatures, precipitation differences and also from carbon fertilization for plants. Projecting climate is ...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
FAO Food price index (FFPI) FAO Food price index (FFPI)
The current world food crisis is the result of the combined effects of competition for cropland from the growth in biofuels, low cereal stocks, high oil prices, speculation in food markets and extreme weather events. The crisis has resulted in a several-fold increase in several central commodity prices, driven 110 million people into poverty and added 44 million more to the already undernourished. Information on the role and constraints of t...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
With our climate changes, we have to adapt our ways to a new environment – in most cases warmer and possibly wetter and drier. Projections on the climate in the future provide some guidance for us, but how can we create models for how the human society reacts? This map presents a rough idea of changes in agricultural output from increased temperatures, precipitation differences and also from carbon fertilization for plants. Projecting climate is ...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
5
Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case Centralized or decentralized? - Uganda. A study case
Looking at the costs and benefits, centralized systems may not be the answer in terms of best result for the investment. The chart on the left shows that the financial NPV does not change with increasing population size for centralized sewage and wastewater connection, however the economic NPV (which includes benefits to health and the environment) shows a positive trend with increas- ing populations. Centralized systems therefore generate a grea...
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
3
Wild rangifer population trends Wild rangifer population trends
Wild reindeer and caribou, Rangifer tarandus, are widely distributed around the circumpolar Arctic where they play a key role in the environment, culture, and economy of the region. One of the two major wild reindeer populations in west Greenland has declined from about 45,000 to 35,000 between 2001 and 2005, while the trend for the second major herd is uncertain. From a management and biological perspective, however, it may be desirable to redu...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
3
Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland Advancement of phenological events in high-arctic Greenland
It is clear from lower latitudes that phenological trends are linked to temperature changes and experimental warming also results in earlier plant phenology. Yet, in Arctic and alpine ecosystems, the melting of the winter snow pack rather than temperature per se determines the onset of biological activity like the timing of flowering in plants and emergence in invertebrates. As such, the phenology of these groups of organisms, or taxa, could be a...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
3
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
4
Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006) Trends in speakers of Arctic indigenous languages (1989-2006)
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
3
Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, several million reindeer and caribou, and many unique mammals, such as the polar bear. During the short summer breeding season, 279 species of birds arrive from as far away as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America to ...
17 Mar 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, GRID-Arendal & CAFF
3
Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
01 Oct 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Ratification of multilateral environmental agreements Ratification of multilateral environmental agreements
Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are a main component of international environmental governance. The number of MEAs created in response to global environmental challenges has risen steadily since the UN Conference on the Human Environment (UNCED) in 1972.
13 Oct 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
4
Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts Arctic biodiversity - pressures and impacts
The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, several million reindeer and caribou, and many unique mammals, such as the polar bear. During the short summer breeding season, 279 species of birds arrive from as far away as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America to ...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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