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Oil and gas development in the Mackenzie valley Oil and gas development in the Mackenzie valley
The Mackenzie Valley in Arctic Canada, Northwest Territories, represents one of the main sites for development of fuels extraction in North America. Activities, including the development of pipelines, impact indigenous peoples, as well as sensity environment.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected areas and wilderness Protected areas and wilderness
Wilderness areas in the Arctic, representing vast expanses of tundra and taiga that sees very little human disturbance and stress have been determined by an analysis prepared by the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre in 2001. Overlaid with protected areas, this graphic highlights the areas that are currently not under International protection, and thus should be made a priority for conservation.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas and oil and gas infrastructure Barents Sea ecoregion conservation priority areas and oil and gas infrastructure
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal species. To identify priority areas for conservation, thirty experts delineated sea areas based on ecological criteria in a WWF study. One of the main threats to the region is the development associated with the expansion of foss...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Arctic transportation routes - roads, shipping and pipelines Arctic transportation routes - roads, shipping and pipelines
Land infrastructure represents a fragmentation of the natural ecosystems, splitting up expanses of tundra and taiga - and creates a disturbance in the form of traffic. In addition, it promotes development of side roads, houses and facilities. Shipping doesn't present a threat in the same way, but there are risks related to goods that could present a hazard for the environment, such as oil.
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups Demography of indigenous peoples of the Arctic based on linguistic groups
Language not only communicates, it defines culture, nature, history, humanity, and ancestry. The indigenous languages of the Arctic have been formed and shaped in close contact with their environment. They are a valuable source of information and a wealth of knowledge on human interactions with nature is encoded in these languages. If a language is lost, a world is lost. This deep knowledge and interconnectedness is expressed in Arctic song, subs...
01 May 2010 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected areas in the Barents ecoregion Protected areas in the Barents ecoregion
The Barents Sea ecoregion - the part of the World Ocean north of the Nordic countries and Northwest Russia, has a unique environment with major sea bird colonies, rich benthic and plankton fauna and many major sea mammal species. Within this ecoregion, this graphic illustrates the existing coverage of protected areas. One of the main threats to the region is the development associated with the expansion of fossil fuel extraction activities. Russi...
06 Dec 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual snowfall pattern for a typical mountain environment, Columbine Pass, Colorado 1971-2000 Annual snowfall pattern for a typical mountain environment, Columbine Pass, Colorado 1971-2000
Mountain snow cover typically develops in the autumn and grows to a maximum depth in early spring. As day length and sun angles increase, so do air temperatures, causing snow cover to warm and begin to melt. Snow cover balances the availability of water in mountain environments. Where winter precipitation falls as rain, surface runoff occurs almost immediately. In contrast, snow stores water during the winter and then melts in the spring and ear...
01 Oct 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Developing countries with environmental strategies Developing countries with environmental strategies
While many countries have shown indifference to environmental commitments made at Rio, the summit significantly helped legitimise environmental issues in political agendas worldwide: over 50 countries currently have national constitutions recognizing the rights of citizens to a healthy environment and many have national legislation to protect the environment.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water Availability Trends Water Availability Trends
Water availability in developing countries (with and without arid climates) has declined by about 65 percent since the 1960s and continues to do so. Forecast indicate that water will become very scarce by 2020.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Severity of land degradation Severity of land degradation
The highest levels of land degradation is in Europe. Specifically degraded soils are found especially in semi-arid areas (Sub-Saharan Africa, Chile), areas with high population pressure (China, Mexico, India) and regions undergoing deforestation (Indonesia).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too Energy efficiency generally improves with economic growth...but greenhouse gases increase too
In 1992 76 million people living in urban areas were exposed to air pollutant concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines. In developing countries 1.9 million people die each year because of indoor air pollution exposure and 500,000 die as a result of outdoor pollutant levels.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001 People affected by natural disasters in Africa from 1971 to 2001
Poor people all over Africa are vulnerable to droughts and floods since many depend on rainfed agriculture as their main means of subsistence and often live in degraded areas susceptible to rainfall variation (cleared of trees and vegetation).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sulphur emissions Sulphur emissions
Soil degradation is a key global environmental indicator. Trans-border pollution in Europe has become a serious international and environmental problem. Sulphur emissions from industry in Eastern Europe is one of the most environmentally damaging problem that faces countries today.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Bad harvests in South Niger Bad harvests in South Niger
In Niger, one of the world's poorest countries, people are far more concerned about the availability of food than its quality. In some areas, particularly in August and September when one crop runs out and the next is not ready to harvest, people eat very little – some days nothing at all.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era Human influences on the atmosphere during the industrial era
In many of the world’s largest cities (Beijing, Calcutta, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, etc.) WHO World Health Organization) air quality guidelines are not met. In 1996 global emissions of carbon dioxide were nearly four times the 1950 total.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hunger and conflicts in Africa Hunger and conflicts in Africa
Over the last 30 years increasing numbers of people have been affected by severe flooding, drought and variable climate in the Sahel. Millions of Africans have sought refuge from these disasters. These peoples have often had to settle on marginal areas; where some have faced social tensions with new neighbouring communities.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Smog over Southeast Asia in 1997 Smog over Southeast Asia in 1997
In 1997 alone haze caused by air pollutants from fire spread for more than 3,200 kilometers, covering six Southeast Asian countries. In the Malaysian state of Sarawak, air pollution reached one the highest recorded indices at 839 g/m3 (levels over 301 g/m3 are equal to smoking 80 cigarettes a day).
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Women in government decision-making positions in 1998 Women in government decision-making positions in 1998
Women are responsible for most household work (and in many parts of the world the majority of agricultural production), but women’s rights to own land or control resources are constrained, often by traditional customs and religious laws.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Areas affected by deforestation Areas affected by deforestation
Deforestation is a key global environmental indicator. Many regions of the world are affected by deforestation: namely in South America (Brazil), Central Africa (Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Eastern Europe.
07 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global human development indicators Global human development indicators
Poverty is multidimensional. It varies in scale and context (political, social, cultural, ecological, historical, economic). The rural poor face different challenges from those in urban areas: they are concerned with natural resources (access, quality), whereas the urban poor care about access to energy, housing and sanitation, and about the quality and availability of water.
29 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, assisted by Lucie Dejouhanet, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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