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Human Development Index (HDI) in 2002 Human Development Index (HDI) in 2002
Human development is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes. It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means — ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Ability of countries to support their citizens from their own environment Ability of countries to support their citizens from their own environment
The Ecological Footprint measures the amount of productive land area needed to support a nation’s consumption and waste. This indicator shows that in many countries, as well as for the planet as a whole, the demand for natural resources, or the 'ecological capacity', exceeds the amount available. Countries that are not able to support their national consumption with their own natural resources are running at an 'ecological deficit'. Therefore the...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Hazardous waste in Georgia Hazardous waste in Georgia
Economic conditions have led to the almost complete closure of old Soviet era industrial complexes. Neither the Rustavi and Zestafoni chemical and metallurgy plants or the Chiatura and Tkibuli mines still function. However, the piles of unused chemicals and heavy metal stocks that still litter these sites pose a very real threat to the local people and environment. In addition, about 300 military sites fulfi lling various purposes – including ro...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia Radioactive, chemical and biological hazards in Central Asia
The Soviet development model for Central Asia was based on building large-scale irrigation schemes enabling the region to become a major cotton producer and expanding the mining and processing industry. Industrial operations in the region paid little attention to the environment and public health, resulting in the accumulation of pollutants in the local environment. Today, not only active industrial facilities constitute a threat to environment, ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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How long does it take for some commonly used products to biodegrade? How long does it take for some commonly used products to biodegrade?
Pollution emitted in industrial areas represents a threat to human health and the surrounding natural resources. We have a tendency to believe that the production processes are the only source of environmental damage, and often forget about the possible long-term effects of harmful production practices. When deposited, there is quite some difference in the amount of time needed for degradation of common products and packaging, and the environmen...
17 May 2005 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global hazardous waste generation by type as reported by the parties to the Basel Convention for the years 1993-2000 Global hazardous waste generation by type as reported by the parties to the Basel Convention for the years 1993-2000
Hazardous wastes can often be recycled in an environmentally sound manner. Wastes that cannot be recycled must be treated to reduce the toxicity and the ability of the constituents to move throughout the environment. Treatment residues must be safely stored to avoid spills and leaks. (US Environmental Protection Agency).
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mercury pollution - transport and cycle Mercury pollution - transport and cycle
Mines use toxic chemicals including cyanide, mercury, and sulphuric acid, to separate metal from ore. The chemicals used in the processing are generally recycled, however residues may remain in the tailings, which in developing countries are often dumped directly into lakes or rivers with devastating consequences. The accidental spillage of processing chemicals can also have a serious impact on the environment. For example, at the Baia Mare mine ...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment Different sources of danger and their impacts to the environment
Contaminated groundwater can adversely affect animals, plants and humans if it is removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. Depending on the geology of the area, groundwater may rise to the surface through springs or seeps, fl ow laterally into nearby rivers, streams, or ponds, or sink deeper into the earth. In many parts of the world, groundwater is pumped out of the ground to be used for drinking, bathing, other household uses, a...
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Species diversity in the world's seas Species diversity in the world's seas
The graphic compares the amount of diversity of marine mammals, sharks, molluscs, birds, shrimp and lobsters in various sea regions. Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse of all natural ecosystems. Recent decades have been catastrophic for them, however; some 10% of the world’s reefs may already have been degraded beyond recovery, and another 30% are in decline. Meanwhile biologically rich coastal wetlands, including mangrove fore...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Antarctic Specially Protected Areas Antarctic Specially Protected Areas
The 1961 Antarctic treaty system, which governs the land and water south of 60 degrees latitude south, gives the environment an overall protection against human development. In addition, certain areas are specifically designated for protection, such as the Antarctic specially protected areas (ASPA), presented in this map.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global freshwater withdrawal Global freshwater withdrawal
World map showing annual levels of renewable water resources for the year 2000 measured in cubic meters. The use of water varies greatly from country to country and from region to region. 'Withdrawal' refers to water taken from a water source for use. It does not refer to water 'consumed' in that use.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global fertilizer consumption Global fertilizer consumption
In recent years, there has been concern that the quantity of mineral fertilizers used in agriculture having adverse effects on the environment. Attention has been drawn to the fact that when nutrients are applied to crops they are not all taken up by the plants immediately. There is also concern that some farmers might be applying inappropriate quantities of fertilizer. The main fertilizers having adverse effects on the environment are nitrate, p...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Signatories to Aarhus convention (2001) Signatories to Aarhus convention (2001)
The Aarhus Convention is a new kind of environmental agreement. It links environmental rights and human rights. It acknowledges that we owe an obligation to future generations. It establishes that sustainable development can be achieved only through the involvement of all stakeholders. It links government accountability and environmental protection. It focuses on interactions between the public and public authorities in a democratic context and i...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional alkalinity trends Regional alkalinity trends
Measuring alkalinity determins a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater. Alkalinity refers to the ability of water to resist change in pH. The graphic shows global comparison of alkalinity measured in milligrams per litre, for the years 1976 and 2000.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water poverty index, by country in 2002 Water poverty index, by country in 2002
Freshwater, as a natural resource, represents a fundamental key to sustainable livelihoods - for health, economy and development. The water poverty index (WPI) is an aggregate index, describing the lack of freshwater. The index is calculated based on five components: resources, access, capacity, use, and environment, using indicators describing these.
28 Sep 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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The DPSIR Framework The DPSIR Framework
DPSIR is a general framework for organising information and reporting about state of the environment covering Driving forces, Pressures, State of the environment, Impacts and Responses. The idea of the framework was however originally derived from social studies and only then widely applied internationally, in particular for organising systems of indicators in the context of environment and, later, sustainable development.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Regional trends in biological oxygen demand Regional trends in biological oxygen demand
The graphic is a global comparison of the biological oxygen demand measured in milligrams per litre. It covers the years from 1976 - 2000. The biological oxygen demand refers to the amount of oxygen required by aerobic microorganisms to decompose the organic matter in a sample of water, such as that polluted by sewage.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Trends in energy consumption Trends in energy consumption
The graphic shows the total world energy consumption from 1970 to 2001, with projections to 2020. It shows the trend of increasing energy use since 1970, continuing until 2020. Over the last decade developed countries have attempted to reduce the over-all energy demand.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Tourism in the Antarctic Tourism in the Antarctic
the graph shows the number of tourist and ships going to the Antarctic from 1981 to 1996. It shows a steady increase of both tourists and ships going to antarctica. Studies have been done to estimate the effects the increased tourism has on the antarctic environment. A great number of tourists can cause disruption in wildlife breeding and reduce populations. Reports of ships hitting underwater rocks, casuing oil spills that greatly affect nearby ...
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Loss of tropical forest in developing regions, 1980-1990 Loss of tropical forest in developing regions, 1980-1990
The graphic shows the amount and rate of deforestation in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa from 1980 to 1990. Tropical forests are earth's most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity.
28 Sep 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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