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Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa Electrification and traditional fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) consists of 15 countries, with 233 million inhabitants. Apart from Mauritius and the countries around South Africa in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the remaining countries exhibit low rates of electricity access and use of high quality fuels. Easy access to electricity and power increases the living standard and enables the development of additional services.
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Biofuels production 2005, by country (ethanol and biodiesel) Biofuels production 2005, by country (ethanol and biodiesel)
Production of crops for biofuels also competes with food production (Banse et al., 2008). Indeed, the corn equivalent of the energy used on a few minutes drive could feed a person for a day, while a full tank of ethanol in a large 4-wheel drive suburban utility vehicle could almost feed one person for a year. A recent OECD-FAO (2007) report expected food prices to rise by between 20% and 50% by 2016 partly as a result of biofuels. Already,...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Relative changes in precipitation Relative changes in precipitation
Projections for changes in precipitation patterns are extremely complex, involving a high degree of uncertainty and large heterogeneity. Summer climate projections under climate change scenario A1B (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) show a reduction in precipitation of between 5% and 10% by the end o...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Index of biodiversity potential in Central America Index of biodiversity potential in Central America
Biodiversity is vitally important to human well-being as it provides ecosystem services on which humans depend. For many species that are sensitive to even small variations in climate, their primary threat is climate change. Variations in climate affect different species of flora and fauna differently, producing, in some cases, a disruption in food chains and/or in reproductive patterns. It is therefore necessary to reduce or control greenhouse g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections Greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and surface temperature projections
Climate change manifests itself primarily through a gradual increase in the average temperatures of the earth’s surface, alterations in precipitation patterns, changes in the intensity and/or frequency of extreme climatic events, a slow but significant reduction in the cryosphere (including glaciers) and a rise in sea levels. Available scientific evidence associates the phenomenon of climate change with increased concentrations of anthropogenic g...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Sustainable development mechanism projects by type Sustainable development mechanism projects by type
Of the 1003 projects falling under the framework of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which have been implemented in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, the majority of the projects are related to renewable energy sources and reduction of methane (87% of the total). Only 1% of the CDM projects are related to transportation, 2% to forestation and reforestation, and 2% to fuel substitution. Consequently, there is a clear need for more ex...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy supply in Latin America Energy supply in Latin America
Although 70% of South America’s electricity comes from hydroelectric sources, the situation in Central America and the Caribbean is quite different. In these two regions electric-power generation rely predominantly on fossil fuels. For Latin America and the Caribbean overall, fossil fuels (primarily oil and natural gas) continued to be the most important source (76%) for producing energy in the year 2007. Of the energy produced in the region, onl...
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Mean changes in runoff Mean changes in runoff
Changes in precipitation and temperature influence changes in runoff and the availability of water. Results from models of changes in runoff are consistent with predictions for precipitation. For 2090-2099, in areas for which increases in the rainfall regimen are expected, increases in runoff are also projected. The anticipated changes in runoff are based on the A1B climate change scenario which assumes future rapid demographic and economic growt...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Warming of the earth's surface Warming of the earth's surface
Climate projections for Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that temperature increases will vary according to the particular emissions scenario and country or region concerned. According to the A1B climate change scenario (this scenario assumes future rapid demographic and economic growth, introduction of new and more efficient technologies, accompanied by a balanced use of all types of energy sources) regional increases this century are pro...
22 Nov 2010 - by Nieves López Izquierdo, Associate Consultant UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect
Human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. This graphic explains how solar energy is absorbed by the earth's surface, causing the earth to warm and to emit infrared radiation. The greenhouse gases then trap the infrared radiation, thus warming the atmosphere.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Total primary energy supply by energy source Total primary energy supply by energy source
No data.
28 Mar 2006 - by Bounford.com and UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy resources, production and transportation Energy resources, production and transportation
Energy is vital for the internal and external security of all three countries (see figure). A secure, affordable domestic energy supply is critical to economic development, particularly in energy hungry industrial sectors. It is also essential to meet social needs (heating, transportation, etc.) especially for vulnerable groups.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Ukraine Environment and security issues in Ukraine
Compared to its neighbours, Ukraine has a very low Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) (ranking 108 out of 146 countries; Esty et al. 2005). This is primarily due to the high energy and pollution-intensity of its industry, pressure on ecosystems due to intensive agriculture, water stress on part of its territory, and insufficiently developed environmental institutions.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy - environment - security interactions Energy - environment - security interactions
Recently energy demand in the region has reached and surpassed the 1991 level at the same time as the world oil prices have increased dramatically. Russia, for its part, has started a reappraisal of the political and economic costs and benefits of providing indirect energy subsidies. These factors are forcing the three countries to urgently rethink their energy supply options.
07 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Environment and security issues in Moldova Environment and security issues in Moldova
Since water resources are of particular importance to Moldova, water pollution is viewed as a nationally significant threat. Moldova does not have large lakes, and all its larger rivers originate outside its borders. there are many other issues facing Moldova's environment and security future.
01 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities Nuclear energy is not a clean alternative The legacy of the Soviet Union's nuclear activities
Even though the nuclear industry does not significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, it is a disputable alternative to fossil fuels. In the former USSR people and the environment still have to cope with the nuclear industry’s legacy.
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Energy cost of various construction materials Energy cost of various construction materials
CO2 emissions are not directly deducible from energy costs. Concrete for instance is a very CO2-intensive material due to the emissions from chemical processes involved in its production, despite the relatively low energy costs per cubic metre.
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Strategic options for climate change mitigation Global cost curve for greenhouse gas abatement measures Strategic options for climate change mitigation Global cost curve for greenhouse gas abatement measures
This graphic attempts to show 'all in one': the various measures for greenhouse gas reduction with both reduction (in CO2 equivalent) and cost (in Euros) quantified. Read from left to right it gives the whole range of strategic options ranging from low hanging fruit, such as building insulation, in green (coming with economic savings) to the increasingly higher hanging ones, such as afforestation, wind energy, in red. * Carbone Capture and St...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France Some examples of the effect of individual behaviour on greenhouse gas emissions in France
The area of the squares is proportionate to the annual reduction in emissions in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. Estimated values calculated by France's Environment Institute (Ifen), drawing on various sources: Manicore; Ceren; Ministry of Works statistics department (Sesp); Insee; Ademe; Environment Ministry (MIES), climate plan 2004; Enertech; Citepa; Energy Observatory.
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Climate Change Performance Index 2008 Climate Change Performance Index 2008
The Climate Change Performance Index developed by Germanwatch is calculated using three weighted indexes: *Emissions trends for energy, transport, industry and residential account for 50 % of total rating; *A country’s current emissions level (CO2 emitted per primary energy unit, primary energy unit per GDP, primary energy unit per capita) is given a 30 % weight in the overall evaluation; *Climate policy (national and international) weighs ...
05 Jan 2009 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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