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Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population Illegal wildlife trafficking affects species population
The illegal trade in wildlife excluding timber and fisheries has been estimated by different sources to be worth 7–23 billion dollars annually, involving a wide range of species including insects, reptiles, amphibians, fish and mammals. It concerns both live and dead specimens or products thereof. Illegal harvest and trade further includes a range of species from iconic ones like gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans, elephants, tigers, rhinos, Ch...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Major environmental crimes Major environmental crimes
The economic scale of environmental crime is substantial - especially on illegal logging and fisheries - and probably just as large as or well exceed global ODA (Official Development Assistance) of around USD 135 billion.
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Environmental crime network Environmental crime network
The opportunities ecosystems provide for future development are threatened by serious and increasingly sophisticated transnational organized environmental crime. This includes illegal logging, poaching and trafficking of a wide range of animals, illegal fisheries, illegal mining and dumping of toxic waste. It is a rapidly rising threat to the environment, to revenues from natural resources, to state security and to sustainable development. Combin...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range Sub-Saharan Africa conflicts and the elephant range
Approximately 19,000 elephants are located within or very near conflict zones in countries with civil wars or significant unrest and armed non-state groups. Up to a maximum 15% of elephant populations are killed annually in or very near conflict zones (ca. 2,850 elephants). An estimated 100,000 elephants are located within a 500 km striking range of such areas of which approximately 5,000 elephants are killed. Within and near conflict zones non-s...
19 Jun 2014 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID Arendal
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Ivory transaction index Ivory transaction index
Overall, using weight and transaction indices derived from the ETIS data, illegal ivory trade activity remained at or slightly above 1998 levels up to 2006. Subsequently, a gradual increase in illegal ivory trade activity commences, becoming progressively greater in each successive year, with a major surge in 2011. The frequency of illegal ivory trade transactions in 2011 was roughly three times greater than the level of illegal trade activity...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa Percentage of elephants illegally killed in Africa
Since 2010, the percentage of elephants being killed illegally at MIKE sites across Africa has been higher than their natural reproduction rate.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa Trend in proportion of illegally killed elephants (PIKE) in Africa
The PIKE trend across Africa show a clear increase in the proportion of illegally killed elephants from 2006 and up to 2012.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Asian elephant population estimates Asian elephant population estimates
Asian elephants occur in isolated populations in 13 range States, with an approximate total range area of almost 880,000 square kilometres equivalent to only one-tenth of the historical range as defined by the IUCN. Today Asian elephants occur in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Feral populations occur on some of the Andaman Islan...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Large scale ivory seizures Large scale ivory seizures
Large-scale ivory shipments originating from Africa have almost exclusively been seized in containers at major ports in Asia, where there is an established customs inspection systems. Shipments have mainly originated from not only Dar es Salaam or Mombasa, but also West Africa.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant population by country African elephant population by country
The overall sub-regional distribution of the African elephant indicates that approximately half of the total elephant population is found in Southern Africa, while less than 30 per cent are found in Eastern Africa. West Africa is home to the smallest number of elephants, only two per cent of the total number of elephants on the continent. The remaining 20 per cent of African elephants are found in Central Africa, although elephant numbers from t...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant range and population distribution African elephant range and population distribution
Elephant population distribution and approximate core ranges of elephants in Africa. Individuals and minor groups of elephants can be found outside these ranges.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant range and population density African elephant range and population density
While poaching is an immediate and direct threat to the African elephant, range and habitat loss are the most significant longterm threat to the species’ survival. There is good reason to believe that the total elephant range in Africa has been in decline over the last two decades. In 1995, the total range area of the African elephant was estimated at 26 per cent of the continent’s total land cover (Said et al. 1995). However, the latest ...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephant population: a different count African elephant population: a different count
The latest estimates of the total number of African elephants range between 419,000 and 650,000. Overall data reliability at the continental level has declined as many important populations have not been surveyed for over ten years.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011 Estimates of illegally killed elephants in 2011
In 2011, approximately 7.4 per cent of the total elephant populations in African MIKE sites were killed illegally. This is a significant increase from 2010, when the average number of elephants killed was estimated to be 11,500. Healthy elephant populations have a natural annual growth rate of between 5 and 6 per cent (Dunham 2012), or a theoretical maximum of 7 per cent (Hanks 1973). Thus the 7.4 per cent estimated illegal off-take in 2011 i...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region Percentage of illegally killed elephants per sub-region
Central Africa has shown worrying poaching trends for some time, and has consistently displayed the highest levels of poaching in any sub-region since MIKE monitoring began. In 2006, PIKE levels were at 0.5, meaning that about half the elephant carcasses encountered on patrol in MIKE sites were reported as illegally killed. In 2011, however, PIKE levels had risen to 0.9. This extremely high PIKE level exceeds any of poaching data is becoming appa...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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African elephants threatened by conflict African elephants threatened by conflict
The African continent has struggled with political instability and conflict in recent history. Such instability encourages criminal activity including wildlife trafficking, poaching and other environmental crimes (Bouché et al. 2012; Chase and Beyers et al. 2011; Griffin 2011). While there are few big conflicts in Southern Africa today, civil unrest and sporadic fighting continues in the Congo Basin, including in the Democratic Republic of Con...
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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Illegal ivory trafficking routes Illegal ivory trafficking routes
Primary and secondary ivory smuggling routes in Africa based on a wide range of sources including both ETIS seizures and criminal intelligence.
28 Nov 2013 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, GRID-Arendal
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