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Tag: Ecosystem

Marine, coastal, and island systems Marine, coastal, and island systems
Marine systems are the world’s oceans. For mapping purposes, the map shows ocean areas where the depth is greater than 50 meters. Global fishery catches from marine systems peaked in the late 1980s and are now declining despite increasing fishing effort.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Species extinction rates Species extinction rates
Comparisons with the rate at which species have disappeared from the planet over a long period of Earth’s history indicate that humans have already increased extinctions levels dramatically. Projections suggest that this rate will take another big leap due to changes over the next 50 years. The bars represent the range of estimates in each case.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework Millennium Ecosystem Assessment conceptual framework
International demand for timber may lead to a regional loss of forest cover, which increases flood magnitude along a local stretch of a river. Similarly, the interactions can take place across different time scales. Actions can be taken either to respond to negative changes or to enhance positive changes at almost all points in this framework.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being
There are many linkages between categories of ecosystem services and components of human well-being. They includes indications of the extent to which it is possible for socioeconomic factors to mediate the linkage. For example, if it is possible to purchase a substitute for a degraded ecosystem service, then there is a high potential for mediation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Sub-global assessments Millennium Ecosystem Assessment - Sub-global assessments
Eighteen sub-global assessments were approved as components of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA). These were not designed to provide a scientific sample of any feature of ecosystems or human well-being. Instead, the choice of assessment locations was determined by a combination of interest in undertaking the assessment, interest in using the findings, and availability of resources to undertake the assessment.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG) Main direct drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystems (CWG)
The cell color indicates impact of each driver on biodiversity in each type of ecosystem over the past 50–100 years. High impact means that over the last century the particular driver has significantly altered biodiversity in that biome; low impact indicates that it has had little influence on biodiversity in the biome. The arrows indicate the trend in the driver. Horizontal arrows indicate a continuation of the current level of impact; diagonal ...
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Net change in components of human well-being between 2000 and 2050 Net change in components of human well-being between 2000 and 2050
Order from Strength, which focuses on reactive policies in a regionalized world, has the least favorable outcomes for human well-being, as the global distribution of ecosystem services and human resources that underpin human well-being are increasingly skewed. Wealthy populations generally meet most material needs but experience psychological unease.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050 Number of ecosystem services enhanced or degraded by 2050
100% degradation means that all the services in the category were degraded in 2050 compared with 2000, while 50% improvement could mean that three out of six services were enhanced and the rest were unchanged or that four out of six were enhanced and one was degraded. The total number of services evaluated for each category was six provisioning services, nine regulating services, and five cultural services.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services Characteristic time and space scales related to ecosystems and their services
The time scale of change refers to the time required for the effects of a perturbation of a process to be expressed. Inertia refers to the delay or slowness in the response of a system to factors altering their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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A multifunctional perspective of agriculture A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only commodities (food, fodder, fibers and biofuels), but also non-commodity outputs such as ecosystem services, landscape amenities and cultural heritages.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth Natural resources for pro-poor economic growth
To alleviate rural poverty, one way is to sustainably use the natural resources available to the people and the communities. By supporting and expanding fisheries, small-scale mining, forestry, ecosystem services and other similar activities and making it easier to run a businesses out of these, economic growth can be gained. This illustration symbolizes this in the form of a tree, with different natural resources as leaves and the trunk being ma...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda Forest vs. Agriculture – the case of the Mabira forest reserve, Uganda
The Mabira forest reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria hosts valuable wildlife, serves as a timber resource, provides ecosystem services for the water balance and the rainforests represents a tourist destination. Following a proposed plan for clearing a third of the reserve for agricultural use, the values of the forest were calculated by local researchers. This economic evaluation of the forest shows that from a short-term perspective, growin...
12 May 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Protected areas, Arctic and Antarctic Protected areas, Arctic and Antarctic
Protected areas are very important for conserving biodiversity. In these areas, human activities are managed to achieve specific conservation goals, for example, to protect a certain species or to conserve a representative habitat or ecosystem. The Arctic has many terrestrial protected areas, but is generally lacking in marine protected areas (MPAs). As the climate warms and the sea ice melts, there will be greater access for activities such as f...
31 Jul 2008 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Potential for cropland expansion Potential for cropland expansion
Current projections suggest that an additional 120 million ha – an area twice the size of France or one-third that of India – will be needed to support the traditional growth in food production by 2030, mainly in developing countries (FAO, 2003), without considering the compensation required for certain losses. The demand for irrigated land is projected to increase by 56% in Sub- Saharan Africa (from 4.5 to 7 million ha), and rainfed land b...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected land use changes Projected land use changes
A central component in preventing loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, such as provisioning of water, from expanding agricultural production is to limit the trade-off between economic growth and biodiversity by stimulating agricultural productivity and more efficient land use. Further enhancement of agricultural productivity (‘closing the yield gap’) is the key factor in reducing the need for land and, consequently, the rate of bio...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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A photographic impression of the gradual changes in two ecosystem types A photographic impression of the gradual changes in two ecosystem types
Globally, over 1,000 (87%) of a total of 1,226 threatened bird species are impacted by agriculture. More than 70 species are affected by agricultural pollution, 27 of them seriously. Europe’s farmland birds have declined by 48% in the past 26 years (European Bird Census Council, 2008). Pesticides and herbicides pose a threat to 37 threatened bird species globally (BirdLife, 2008), in addition to deleterious effects of agricultural chemica...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Boreal forest Boreal forest
The boreal forest biome holds the second largest stock of carbon; most of this is stored in the soil and litter. The draining of boreal forest peatlands, inappropriate forestry practices and poor fire management may all cause significant losses of the carbon stored in this ecosystem.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World soil demand World soil demand
Human needs and ecosystem conservation
01 Nov 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest, crops and the people Forest, crops and the people
There are competing demands for land use. Any policy that aims to promote ecosystem carbon management must resolve conflicts between different land uses and take care not to disadvantage the poor.
27 May 2009 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water desalination Water desalination
Desalination is an increasingly important practice to secure clean water in a number of countries. Monitoring is key to minimize negative impacts on the ecosystem.
01 Mar 2010 - by UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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