Biofuels production 1975-2005 (ethanol and biodiesel)
Biofuels have grown quickly in demand and production (Figure
14), fuelled by high oil prices and the initial perception of their
role in reducing CO2 emissions (FAO, 2008). Biofuels, including
biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol from sugarcane, corn
and soybean, accounted for about 1% of the total road transport
in 2005, and may reach 25% by 2050, with the EU having
set targets as high as 10% by 2020 (World Bank, 2007; FAO,
2008). For many...
02 Feb 2009 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Carbon intensity of economy: Percentage growth from 1980
The ratio of emissions to GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean remained constant between 1980 and 2005. This is very much in contrast to the world as a whole, the OECD countries and in particular when compared to China. These figures clearly show the need to intensify efforts within the region to transition to less carbon-intensive economies.
22 Nov 2010 - by Riccardo Pravettoni, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
States, organizations and strategical issues in the Arctic: People across borders
Through numerous fora, Arctic peoples now seek to define a sustainable balance in their participation between the cash economy and their traditional pursuit. Their right to influence the future of the coastal regions is under heavy pressure from industrial fisheries and exploration activities based much further south.
17 May 2005 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economy of the Arctic, by sector
The largest economies in the Arctic belong to Alaska (US) and Russia, mainly because of mining and petroleum activity. Regions that are still heavily dominated by more traditional subsistence activities, such as hunting and fishing, in Greenland and in Northern Canada, have much lower gross products. Similarly, reindeer herding in Russia and Scandinavia is of substantial importance to the livelihoods and lifestyles of reindeer herders like the Sa...
17 May 2005 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Economic output and external debt in the Southern Caucasus [Russian]
Peacefully resolving the overriding political, economic and social concerns of our time requires a multifaceted approach, including mechanisms to address the links between the natural environment and human security. UNDP, UNEP, OSCE and NATO have joined forces in the Environment and Security (ENVSEC) Initiative to offer countries their combined pool of expertise and resources towards that aim.
ENVSEC assessment of environment and security linkag...
01 Nov 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Natural hazard hotspots, by risk type
Disasters and natural hazards represents one strong aspect of vulnerability for the exposed and poor of the World. With climate change, the frequency of certain natural hazards are expected to increase. This map presents an output from an analysis investigating hazard exposure and historical vulnerability for selected natural hazards, together with population distribution and economy. Specifically, this map provides information on what natural ha...
08 Mar 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Energy - environment - security interactions
Recently energy demand in the region has reached and surpassed the 1991 level at the same time as the world oil prices have increased dramatically. Russia, for its part, has started a reappraisal of the political and economic costs and benefits of providing indirect energy subsidies. These factors are forcing the three countries to urgently rethink their energy supply options.
07 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine: topography
Eastern Europe extends from the northern shore of the Black Sea in Ukraine up to the Baltic Sea basin in Belarus. It covers 845,000 square kilometers and is home to almost 60 million people. These nations share common borders, watersheds, and infrastructure and have many similarities in their geography, history, culture and economy.
29 Nov 2007 - by Viktor Novikov, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
Benefits of marine and coastal ecosystems to human wellbeing
Besides the well-known economic value of fisheries, there are several other activities generating significant revenues in coastal and marine areas. Tourism has become one of the world’s fastest growing industries, providing a significant proportion of the GDPs of many developing countries. Small island states are particularly reliant on coastal and marine tourism. In the Caribbean, for example, the industry accounts for a quarter of the total eco...
26 Jan 2009 - by Phillippe Rekacewicz, February 2006