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Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks Central Asia: political transition and environmental risks
The Environment and Security consultations in Ashgabat in 2003 pinpointed the Ferghana valley as an area of significant concern in Central Asia (UNEP, UNDP, OSCE 2003) The graphic shows the priority geographic areas and thematic issues for possible ENVSEC action in this area
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin Water withdrawal and availability in Aral Sea basin
Agriculture is a mainstay of Central Asia’s economy. With the economic crisis following independence it has become even more important. Agriculture being almost entirely dependent upon irrigation, access to water is of strategic importance. Two major Tributaries – The Naryn and the Kara-Darya – both originating in Kyrgyzstan, join to form the Syr-Darya, one of the two largest rivers serving the Aral Sea Basin, and the key water resource of the wh...
16 Mar 2006 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Uganda: quantifying the importance of environment and natural resources Uganda: quantifying the importance of environment and natural resources
Estimations calculate that the environment and natural resources sector should contribute USD 791 million to the Uganda GDP, excluding benefits like ecosystem services. In the formal figures, only USD 405 million is recorded, where subsistence use and informal markets are not captured. Over 90% of the employment in the sector is secondary processing and subsistence use. Sustainable natural resource use implies that this sector will continue to pr...
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Employment in the travel and tourism industry in Africa Employment in the travel and tourism industry in Africa
About 6.3 million people work in the travel and tourism industry in Africa, where tourism is highly dependent on natural and cultural environment. However, since travel & tourism touches all sectors of the economy, its real impact is even greater.
02 Nov 2006 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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World economy cartogram World economy cartogram
To highlight the distribution of wealth and power in the world of today, this cartogram sizes the countries according to their relative financial status, here presented through gross domestic product (gdp) per capita, offering an alternative world view to a regular map. Countries such as China and India become much smaller, next to giants in Western Europe, North America and Japan. Africa represents a minor speck, while South and Central America ...
13 Feb 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Vladimir S. Tikunov
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Overview on glacier changes since the end of the Little Ice Age Overview on glacier changes since the end of the Little Ice Age
Glaciers and ice caps reached their Holocene (the past 10 000 years) maximum extent in most mountain ranges throughout the world towards the end of the Little Ice Age, between the 17th and mid-19th century. Over the past hundred years a trend of dramatic shrinking is apparent over the entire globe, especially at lower elevations and latitudes. Within this general trend, strong glacier retreat is observed in the 1930s and 1940s, followed by static...
01 Jun 2007 - by Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific Examples of ozone depleting substances (ODS) smuggling patterns in Asia and the Pacific
In the mid-1990s, when CFCs were phased-out in industrialized countries (non-Article 5 countries), illegal trade in those chemicals emerged. By 1996 this trade had reached alarming proportions, accounting for as much as 12–20% of global trade in ozone depleting substances (ODS).
29 Nov 2007 - by Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Forest systems Forest systems
Forest systems are lands dominated by trees; they are often used for timber, fuelwood, and non-wood forest products. The map shows areas with a canopy cover of at least 40% by woody plants taller than 5 meters.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Global production, prices, and undernourishment Global production, prices, and undernourishment
Food production more than doubled (an increase of over 160%) from 1961 to 2003. Over this period, production of cereals—the major energy component of human diets—has increased almost two and a half times, beef and sheep production increased by 40%, pork production by nearly 60%, and poultry production doubled.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Changes in forest area Changes in forest area
Timber is harvested from forests and plantations and used for a variety of building, manufacturing, fuel, and other needs. Forests (providing fuelwood and charcoal), agricultural crops, and manure all serve as sources of biomass energy.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries Annual flow of benefits from forests in selected countries
In most countries, the marketed values of ecosystems associated with timber and fuelwood production are less than one third of the total economic value, including non-marketed values such as carbon sequestration, watershed protection, and recreation.
30 Nov 2007 - by Philippe Rekacewicz, Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Counting female-headed households Counting female-headed households
In SSA women make up two-thirds of those infected with HIV/AIDS. This adds additional burdens for women as producers of food and as family caretakers. Labor loss due to illness, need to care for family members and paid employment required to cover medical costs may cause families to decrease their farming activities.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture Multiple stressors in small-scale agriculture
There is a need to develop agricultural policies that both reduce emissions and allow adaptation to climate change that are closer to carbon-neutral, minimize trace gas emissions and reduce natural capital degradation. Important questions include how emissions from agriculture and forestry can be effectively reduced, how to produce food with greater input efficiency, and less GHG emissions, how can agriculture, agroforestry and forestry best adap...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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A multifunctional perspective of agriculture A multifunctional perspective of agriculture
In IAASTD, multifunctionality is used solely to express the inescapable interconnectedness of agriculture’s different roles and functions. The concept of multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only commodities (food, fodder, fibers and biofuels), but also non-commodity outputs such as ecosystem services, landscape amenities and cultural heritages.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture Projected gains (losses) for countries under Doha scenario for agriculture
Agricultural trade offers opportunities for developing countries to benefit from larger scale production for global markets, acquire some commodities cheaper than would be possible through domestic production, and gain access to new forms of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology (AKST) and equipment (e.g. fertilizers, HYV seeds, pump sets, etc.). Projections for the Doha round of trade negotitations show, though, that for the agricultura...
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006 Major genetically modified crop production countries, 2006
Some regions report increases in some crops and positive financial returns have been reported for genetically modified cotton in studies including South Africa, Argentina, China, India and Mexico. In contrast, the US and Argentina may have slight yield declines in soybeans, and also for maize in the US. Studies on GMOs have also shown the potential for decreased insecticide use, while others show increasing herbicide use.
03 Jan 2008 - by IAASTD/Ketill Berger, UNEP/GRID-Arendal
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Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion Pig farming in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion Sheep and goats in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Unemployment in the Caucasus ecoregion Unemployment in the Caucasus ecoregion
High unemployment is one of the driving forces behind the degradation of ecosystems in the region. Upon the break-up of the Soviet Union the situation worsened as the economy was restructured. After almost two decades the situation has improved - a number of industries successfully restarted their operations and small businesses boomed up in cities and countryside. However, the unemployment rate, especially in some provinces in Russia, Georgia an...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion Cattle in the Caucasus ecoregion
Over the recent number of years, as the economy came to a standstill, individual farms have replaced collective farming and subsistence agriculture and livestock breeding (cattle, sheep and goat) have became common. Along with the increase in farming, more and more land has been used as pasture land. Despite their low productivity, high Mountain areas are increasingly used as pasture grounds for sheep - leading to soil erosion and evoking avalanc...
29 Jan 2008 - by Manana Kurtubadze
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